269 Exam 1

  1. Deaf
    cultural model, deafness = difference, pro-ASL
  2. deaf
    medical/pathological model, audiologically deaf, technology focused
  3. Community
    a group of people who share common goals and cooperate in achieving these goals
  4. Deaf community
    • live in particular location
    • work toward achieving common goals
    • may include people who are not Deaf (family members, teachers, etc)
  5. Culture
    • a set of learned behaviors of a group of people who have their own language, values, rules for behavior, and traditions
    • American, Catholic, female, rural, etc
  6. Deaf culture
    • Deafness is not a disability
    • visual communication
    • ASL is equal to spoken language
    • education focuses on subject matter instead of communication method
    • support socialization with deaf and larger communities
    • work WITH Deaf people
  7. Stage 1
    • Cultural hearing
    • Deafness = medical pathology
    • hearing is better
  8. Stage 2
    • Culturally Marginal
    • usually first identity developed by deaf children born into hearing families
    • don't fit in with deaf of hearing world
  9. Stage 3
    • Immersion into the Deaf World
    • Deaf is superior
    • ASL is superior
  10. Stage 4
    • Bicultural
    • cultural pride as a Deaf person
    • some comfort in both Deaf and Hearing situations
    • respect for spoken language and ASL
  11. Pre-lingual deafness
    occurs before language is learned
  12. Childhood deafness
    occurs before adolescence
  13. Prevocational deafness
    occurs before age 19
  14. Adult-onset deafness
    occurs after age 19
  15. What age groups are more likely to adopt Deaf culture?
    pre-lingual and childhood
  16. deaf
    cannot hear and understand speech through listening alone, with or without amplification
  17. Hard-of-hearing
    hearing loss has occurred, but speech can still be understood, sometimes only with amplification and sometimes without
  18. Hearing impaired
    • clinical term encompassing both deaf and hard-of-hearing
    • many culturally Deaf people find this term offensive
  19. Profound hearing loss
    90 dB+
  20. Severe hearing loss
    71-90 dB
  21. Moderate hearing loss
  22. Mild hearing loss
    25-40 dB
  23. Variables affecting membership in Deaf Culture
    • age at onset of deafness
    • extent of hearing loss
    • presence of other disabling conditions
    • parental influence
    • proximity to others who are Deaf
  24. Parental influence variable
    • hearing status of parents
    • education level
    • mental and emotional characteristics
    • which experts get to them first
  25. Pre-encounter
    lack of knowledge about and denial of racial and cultural differences
  26. Encounter
    • first exposure to deaf community
    • effect is different in early and late deafened people
  27. Immersion
    • characterized by anger, especially towards dominant groups in society
    • rejection of everything pertaining to majority society
    • embracing everything connected to the minority culture
  28. Internalization
    • bicultural
    • integrating cultural difference in an affirmative way
    • intolerant of oppression
    • proud of heritage and community
    • but able to recognize limitations of community and positive aspects of majority society
  29. About how many Americans have hearing loss?
    28 million
  30. IDEA's effect on education of deaf children
    made free education for all people with disabilities
  31. Deaf baby to deaf parents reaction
    many members of the Deaf-World would prefer having a Deaf child to having a hearing child
  32. Deaf to deaf social development
    through exposure to adults who function normally as models for the child
  33. Deaf to deaf emotional development
    encouraged by the positive responses of the family to its new member
  34. Deaf to deaf psychological development
    Deaf parents treat their Deaf child as an extension of themselves
  35. Deaf to deaf cognitive development
    parental expectations are high
  36. Deaf to deaf ASL
    • immediate exposure
    • cooing, babbling, and first-word stages of hearing children are paralleled in Deaf babies with their play in handshape and movement and first-signs
    • Deaf babies also coo and babble orally, but eventually stop
  37. Deaf to deaf function better than deaf of hearing in what areas?
    • academic
    • linguistic social
  38. Why are some Deaf adults saddened by the birth of a Deaf baby?
    • influenced by values and instructions of hearing professionals
    • knows that their deaf child must endure many arduous trials
    • own experiences may have been negative
  39. Deaf parents of deaf children obstacles in raising their children
    • educated below their capability
    • emplyed below their capability
    • viewed negatively by hearing world
    • social workers seek to remove children
    • question abilities to raise
  40. What are the four worlds in which Deaf people from multicultural backgrounds live?
    families, dominant white culture, dominant Deaf culture, and minority Deaf culture
  41. What percent of Deaf children have Deaf parents?
  42. Deaf to hearing reaction
    • feel they produced a genetically defective child
    • parents blame themselves
  43. Hearing of deaf experience with Deaf-World
    • seldom have personal experience as a resource
    • leads to professionally guided identity development for child (otologists, audiologists, SLPs, special ed specialists)
  44. Newborn hearing screenings
    • changed dramatically in the last 10 years
    • hearing loss used to not be identified until close to the age of 2
    • now most states require newborn screening
  45. "Stages of trauma" hearing parents experience
    grief, mourning, denial, and anger
  46. Professionals' view of deafness
    • something is very wrong with the child
    • see parental acceptance that their child is Deaf as a reluctant last choice
    • parents who choose not to have their child fitted with aids are often viewed as negligent
  47. Information parents have to learn
    hearing aids, audiograms, the principles of hearing, the methods of speech therapy and aural rehabilitation, invented sign systems
  48. Frustrations for hearing parents
    • frustrations grow as child reaches eighteenth month
    • unable to explain to child why he/she cannot have certain objects or do certain things
    • may result in manipulation or over disciplining
    • parents communicate less (mother left with most responsibilities)
  49. HCDP
    Hearing Children with Deaf Parents
  50. CODA
    Children of Deaf Adults
  51. KODA
    Kid of Deaf Adults
  52. Coda percentage
    88-92% of children born to deaf parents are hearing
  53. Coda language
    • commonly learn two languages and two cultures
    • commonly become ASL interpreters and mediators while children
    • equal number do not learn ASL (parents were falsely told ASL inhibits learning English)
  54. Coda birth order and learning ASL
    • oldest child will learn ASL, especially if female
    • sometimes siblings do not learn ASL very well
  55. Deaf parents may ask hearing children about hearing world:
    • how hearing people live
    • about sounds
    • about English
  56. Hearing friends will ask about Deaf world:
    • how do deaf use the phone?
    • can deaf people drive?
  57. CODAs are "almost Deaf"
    • possess cultural part of being Deaf
    • lack physical difference and experiences associated with it
    • "am i hearing or Deaf?"
  58. CODAs know they are different from very early on:
    • visual awareness of environment
    • eye contact
    • often want they parents to be hearing
  59. Five ways to help with identity conflict in CODAs by Thomas H. Bull
    • 1. acquiring information through reading autobiographies and other resources
    • 2. developing individual and group identities intentionally
    • 3. forming support groups for parents and providing a variety of camping and other activities for hearing children
    • 4. using humor to enhance the bond of parents
    • 5. increasing opportunities for parent education and developing information resources
  60. 335 BC
    Aristotle says those "born deaf become senseless and incapable of reason"
  61. 1550
    • Pedro Ponce de Leon, Spanish monk, begins teaching the deaf
    • he is believed to be first person in history to attempt to teach the deaf
  62. 1755
    • Samuel Heinicke, German educator, establishes first oral school for deaf (used speech, strong supporter of oralism)
    • Charles Michel Abbe de l'Epee, French educator, establishes first free school for deaf (sign language as main method)
  63. 1776
    Charles Michel Abbe de l'Epee publishes Instruction of Deaf and Dumb by Means of Methodical Signs
  64. 1760
    • Thomas Braidwood opens first school for deaf in Britain
    • advocated oral method
  65. 1805-1830
    Alice Cogswell was born to Dr. Mason Cogswell (lost her hearing and speech capabilities at age of 2 due to illness)
  66. 1787-1851
    • Thomas Gallaudet born in Philly, graduated from Yale, and member of Hartford community
    • he was working toward becoming a minister when he met the Cogswells
  67. 1816
    Laurent Clerc and Thomas Gallaudet return to America
  68. 1817
    Connecticut Asylum for the Education and Instruction of Deaf and Dumb Persons opens in Hardford (Alice Cogswell was first student)
  69. 1864
    Edward Minor Gallaudet establishes Gallaudet College in Washington D.C. (the charter is signed by Lincoln)
  70. 1867
    Clark School- first oral school for deaf in US (sign language forbidden)
  71. 1872
    Alexander G. Bell opens a speech school for teachers of the deaf in Boston
  72. 1880
    International Congress on Education of the Deaf meets at Milan, Italy- decided oral method is best method for the education of deaf students
  73. Communication modes used by deaf individuals
    • ASL (american sign language)- facial features, eyebrow motion and lip-mouth movement
    • English based systems- manually coded english, signed exact english, linguistics of visual english (LOVE), rochester method (finger spelling everything)
    • cued speech- made up of a series of hand shapes and placements that allows the sounds of the phonemes to become visual
    • oral
  74. Preschool education options
    • parent/child tutorial
    • cognitive academic preschool programs
    • oral program
    • signing program
    • ASL program
  75. School age education options
    • mainstream/inclusion
    • resource room
    • self-contained classroom
    • day school
    • residential school
  76. Mainstreaming/inclusion
    children attend classes with hearing students
  77. Mainstreaming/inclusion pros
    • integrated, not segregated
    • one-to-one help if itinerant is available
    • expectation is to stay on grade level
    • "normal" school experience, living at home
  78. Mainstreaming/inclusion cons
    • communication gap with teachers and peers
    • lack of classroom participation
    • may only receive help if a problem arises
    • stigma, social isolation
    • dependent relationships may develop
    • limitations of personnel
    • little access to Deaf role models
  79. Resource room
    children attend some classes with hearing students, but use the resource room for some instruction, especially in language-based subjects such as english and reading
  80. Resource room pros
    • child receives one-to-one instruction, usually with a qualified reading specialist
    • partial integration with hearing students
    • live at home
  81. Resource room cons
    • may be pulled from regular classes
    • may only be mainstreamed for gym, lunch, recess
    • resource room personnel may or may not have expertise in deafness
    • may still be isolated from other deaf students
    • limited access to Deaf role models
  82. Self-contained classroom
    classroom(s) in a public school set side for deaf students, with a separate teacher
  83. Self-contained classroom pros
    • teacher is usually certified in Deaf education
    • some contact with hearing peers
    • live at home
    • contact with other deaf students
    • individualized instruction
  84. Self-contained classroom cons
    • children of varying ages put together in the same class
    • class may have children with varying degrees of hearing loss
    • class may have children with varying communication preferences
    • limited contact with hearing students
    • little access to Deaf role models
  85. Day school
    separate school for deaf students, usually in large metropolitan areas with sufficient population base
  86. Day school pros
    • live at home
    • parents can have close contact with school
    • teacher certified in Deaf education
    • may have specialized equipment for Deaf students
    • contact with other Deaf students
  87. Day school cons
    • children may be bussed long distances from outlying areas
    • less opportunity for enculturation than at residential school; out-of-class contact is limited
    • segregated from hearing students
    • possibly lower academic standards
    • large numbers of disadvantaged inner-city children with little home support
  88. Residential schools
    • students usually live at the school during the week, spend weeneds at home
    • many prelingually deaf students, students who have additional disabilities
  89. Residential schools pros
    • age appopriate peer group with similar hearing loss and communication preference
    • social interaction and emotional growth
    • some deaf role models available
    • special equipment
    • extracurricular activities
    • exposure to Deaf culture, especially outside classroom
    • parent outreach programs
    • school-to-work transition programs
  90. Residential schools cons
    • may be viewed as an "institution"
    • segregation, less exposure to hearing world
    • separation from family
Card Set
269 Exam 1
deafness and society