Sport Psych

  1. processing operations:

    recall past experiences and learning from memory
    memory storage
  2. processing operations:

    has been stored for later time
    informational retrieval
  3. memory systems:

    short amount of time, bits of information taken in,
    unlimited supply
    sensory information store
  4. memory systems:

    small and doesnt last long, working memory, get from now or
    long term, brain says ok to remember
    short-term memory
  5. memory systems:

    unlimited storage, drawn on by past experience
    long-term memory
  6. as skill of athlete increases, ___________ conveyed
  7. selective attention becomes better the _______ the athlete
  8. to narrow of focus
    attentional narrowing
  9. cue utilization theory involves

    ____ _____ cues

    ____ ______ cues
    task irrelevant cues

    task relevant cues
  10. Cues:

    things that can damage performance if attended to

    ex.) crowd
    task irrelevant cues
  11. Cues:

    things that enhance performance if attended to

    ex.) thinking about swing of golf club
    task relevant cues
  12. high levels of arousal can cause this?
  13. narrow focus but able to scan area
    peripheral scanning
  14. primary task consumes most of the available information processing space
    inattentional blindness
  15. looking at body cues before execution of some task
    -good thing
    -predicts next move
    antipatory skill
  16. when relevant are processed and plans are made
    -seeing cues before acting
    quiet eye period
  17. thoughts of escape or task irrelevant thoughts
    ex.) choking
    cognitive interference
  18. _____________ and ______________ preperation are necessary for a great performance
    physical and mental
  19. 3 things that go into making a mental genius
    • 1. born with it
    • 2. time spent practicing
    • 3. ability to imagine every possible solution
  20. beginning phase of learning when athlete attends to details of execution.... _________ processing
  21. advanced phase of learning in which execution of skill requires little concious effort .... _______ processing
  22. shifting of attention from automatic mode to a controlled processing mode (thinking to much)
  23. athlete reverts to instinct and quits thinking logically (thinking about nothing)
  24. internal vs. external attentional focus

    attend to internal bodily actions such as "keep elbow straight"
    -happens when not very good at sport or just starting the skill
    internal focus
  25. internal vs. external attentional focus

    attend to goal and to external effects of skill execution such as "focus upon catchers target"
    -good at sport/experience with sport
    external focus
  26. spectrums:

    broad vs. _______
    internal vs. _________
    • narrow
    • external
  27. Thought stopping steps

    • 1.displace negative thought
    • 2.take deep breaths
    • 3.focus on task relevant external cues
    • 4.execute sport
  28. associators (internalizers) -

    type of athlete?
    think about what?
    • elite athletes
    • think about body
  29. dissociatiors (externalizers)

    Type of athlete?
    think about what?
    • other athletes
    • think about way to distract themselves....
    • ex. think about ipod
    • -more likely to get injured
  30. generic term used to describe emotions, feelings, and moods
  31. a situation specific response to the enviroment
  32. there are 15 specific manifests of emotion, of which anxiety is a one important manifestation
  33. discrete responses to the enviroment that last only seconds, minutes, or perhaps hours
  34. are more diffuse and last for weeks or even months
    - more stable than emotion
  35. is a specific emotion that is closely related to Han Selye's concept of stress
  36. is defined as the "nonspecific response of the body to any demand placed upon it"
  37. 2 kinds of stress:

    • eustress
    • distress
  38. good stress (before event)
  39. bad stress (during and before)
    -synonymous to anxiety
  40. immediate emotional state chacaterized by apprehension, fear, tension, and increase in arousal
    state anxiety
  41. predisposition to percieve certain enviromental situations as threatning and to respond to these situations with increased state anxiety
    -comes from parents
    -more likely to have state anxiety also
    trait anxiety
  42. type of anxiety caused by such things as fear of social evaluation, fear or failure and loss of self-esteem
    -worry in mind
    -not good for performance
    cognitive anxiety
  43. physical componant of anxiety and reflects the perception of going through the body
    -positive or negative
    -ex. increased heart rate
    somatic anxiety
  44. three parts of the stress process
    • 1.enviromental situation
    • 2.appraisal of enviromental situation
    • 3.stress response
  45. only occurs if coping skills percieved to be inadequete to deal with situation (imbalance)
    - stressed to exhaustion without starting= bad
    -arousal = good
    -coping skill= imaginary, thought stopping
    stress response
  46. antecendents before event state anxiety

    fears of what? (3)
    • fear of ...
    • performance failure
    • negative social evaluation
    • physical harm
  47. -starts high and remains high as event approaches.
    -fluctuates throughout the contest as probability of success changes
    -causes catastrpohies
    cognitive anxiety
  48. -starts low but increases rapidly as event approaches
    -dissipates rapidly once event begins
    -body response
    somatic anxiety
  49. perfectionism in sport:

    two over arching dimensions
    • 1. functional perfectionism
    • 2. dysfunctional perfectionism
  50. -considered to be positive and adaptive.
    -Characterized by perfectionism strivings (self and other),
    -high personal standards and desire for organizations
    -good perfectionism
    functional perfectionism
  51. -considered to be negative and maladaptive
    -chacterized by concern over mistakes, parental expectations and critism, self-doubts and socially prescribed expectations
    -causes anxiety and stresss
    -bad perfectionism
    dysfunctional perfectionism
  52. ________ prediction of perfectionism
    -lower leves of state anxiety = feel in control
    -higher levels of self confidence
    -adaptive attributes
    -autonomenous motivation = you, yourself, = motivated
    adaptive goal orientations
  53. ________ prediction of perfectionism
    - higher levels of state anxiety
    -lower levels of self confidence
    -maladaptive attributions
    -controlling motivation
    -maladatptive goal orienations
  54. 2 theories that have a relationship between arousal and performance
    -proxy is state anxiety
    -arousal increases with increase with state anxiety
    • 1. inverted u-theory
    • 2. drive theory
  55. most well known
    best performance occurs at moderate level of arousal
    chances in performance are gradual as arousal increases
    easy task - high arousal
    task difficutly - arousal varies

    inverted u-theory
  56. performance = arousal x skill level
    performance increases as arousal increase (linear)
    high arousal = best performance
    early learning (skill level low)= low arousal
    late in learning (skill level high)= arousal up
    strength of theory is that it helps explain relationship between learning and arousal

    drive theory and performance
  57. are brief responses to enviromental situation
  58. are less intense but prolonged experiences that relate to the individual as well as situation
  59. What model is this?

    successful athlete is viewed as a mentally healthy individual
    mentally healthy elite athlete exhibits an iceberg profile relative to the six POMS subscales
    1. above norm on vigor
    2. below norm on other 5
    morgans mental health model
  60. 4 alternative theories to inverted u-theory
    • martens multidemesional
    • fazey and hardys catastrophe
    • hanins individual zone of optimal functioning
    • flow: psychology of optimal experience
  61. Theory?

    -negative linear relationship exsists between cognitive and athleteic performance = bad (cognitive anxiety increases, performance decreases)
    -inverted u-theory exsists between somatic anxiety and performance ( best oerformance occurs at mod. level of somatic anxiety)
    Marten's Multidimensional Anxiety Theory
  62. Theory?

    -challenges invereted u-theory
    -models proposed : Cusp catastrophe model
    -cognitive anxiety causes catastrophe
    -can't come back from it
    Fazey and Hardy's Catastrophe Theory
  63. Model? of Fazey and Hardy

    -three dimensional (cognitive, psychological and performance) - may cause catastrophe if all to high
    -cognitive state anxiety interacts with physiological arousal to produce performance result
    -low anxiety = inverted u- theory between arousal and performance
    high anxiety = increase in arousal results in a catastrophic drop in performance at some point along the arousal continuum
    Cusp Catastrophe Model
  64. Theory?

    -concept of being in the zone
    -specifically challenged the notion that best performance occurs at a moderate level of of arousal/anxiety
    -everyone has a different anxiety level based on high, low or mod. anxiety each person performs best at each center of one.
    Hanin's Individual Zone of Optimal Functioning Theory (IZOF)
  65. focus upon individual zone of optimal functioning for state anxiety
    state anxiety and the IZOF
  66. person experiences flow when fully engaged in an interesting activity for its own sake and no other external purpose
    flow is the epitome of positive psychology
    not necessary to have peak performance
    not prediction in best performance
    based on 9 characteristics: loss of self-awareness
    flow: the psychology of optimal experience
  67. intrinsic motivation, athlete engagement, and mindfullness all correlate with what?
  68. degree to which athlete engages in an activity with confidence, dedication, enthusiasm, and vigor
    athlete enagement
  69. nonjudgemental focus of ones attention on here and now
  70. mentally preparing for event and dealing with stress and anxiety
  71. situation specific coping
    1. _______ focused
    2. _______ focused
    • problem focused
    • emotion focused
  72. dispositional coping style
    1. ______
    • approach
    • avoidance
  73. focus is on eliminating root cause of stress response
    ex. task, action
    problem focused
  74. goal is to regulate emotions in order to reduce stress response
    ex. behavior coping
    emotion focused
  75. type of coping includes: mental distraction, distancing, venting emotions, ipod
    avoidance coping
  76. athletes have a certain learned or innate way of coping with all stress related situations
    dispositional hypothesis
  77. athletes coping responses are dynamic and fluid changing from situation to situation
    dynamic hypothesis
  78. reconize similar stimuli
    internal focus
    learned resourcefulness
    do what for coping?
    factors that ENHANCE
  79. sex of athlete
    proactive (antipate) and automated (practiced) nature of coping
    percieved controllability of stressor
    these factors ______ coping effectiveness
  80. where and when of self-talk
    what of self talk
    why of self talk
    research support
    self talk as an ___________
  81. overt or covert personal dialogue in which the athlete interprets feelings, perceptions, and gives self instructions and reinforcement.
    self talk
  82. 4 W's of self talk
    • where
    • what
    • why
    • when
  83. takes place most often during competition, with during performance/training a distant second

    self talk?
    self talk - where
  84. takes place equally either before or during competition

    self talk?
    self talk - when
  85. used more by individuals/skilled sport athletes

    self talk?
    self talk - what
  86. structure of self talk describes the use of cue words, phrases, and sentences
    use of task instruction is usually specific
    categories of self talk are three types
    self talk ?
  87. task specific statements relating to technique
    encouragement and effort
    mood words (go)
    type of self talk
  88. brief and simple
    associated with skill
    timing of task performed
    __________ of effective self talk
  89. two functions
    cognitive componant
    motivational componant
    self talk?
  90. these strategies involve:
    anxiety/stress spiral
    relaxtion response and deep breathing
    progressive relaxtion
    autogenic training
    biofeedback training
    relaxtion strategies
  91. mental device
    passive attitude
    decreased muscle tone
    quiet enviroment

    these factors necessary for _______ response
  92. tense muscle then relax it
    systemic tensing and relaxing all muscles beginning with upper limbs
    after training - can be done in minutes

    type of relaxation?
    progressive relaxation
  93. warming/heaviness/calm/sensation of the body

    type of relaxation?
    autogenic training
  94. athletes focuses attention on a single thought, sound or object
    mantra is used

    type of relaxation?
  95. training uses instruments to help people control responses of autonomic nervous system

    type of relaxation?
    biofeedback training
  96. team goal setting
    pep talks
    bulletin boards
    publicity and news coverage
    fan support
    coach, athlete, and parent interaction
    team engergizing strategies
  97. individual goal setting
    attentional focus
    immediate individual self-energizing strategies
Card Set
Sport Psych