HST 163 Terms 1

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  1. Forager
    • hunters and gatherers
    • moved from place to place where food was plentiful
  2. Mesoamerica
    Mexico and Central America
  3. Maize cultivation
    • began in 3500 BC
    • changed these people from hunter-gatherers to farmers
    • spread over a wide area by 2000 BCE
  4. Sedentary Communities
    • began to arise with sufficent agriculture
    • people began take positions of command
    • orchestrated collective construction projects - architecture (usuall religious like pyramids)
  5. Ceremonial Centers
    • The Olmec
    • Chavin de Huantar
  6. Peruvian Andes
    • Central Andes
    • mountain range that had rivers flowing, enabling Peruvians to grow crops
  7. archaeology
    the study of human history and prehistory through the excavation of sites and the analysis of artifacts
  8. The Olmec
    • "people pf the place of rubber" "mother culture" of Mexico
    • people living along the tropical coast of the Gulf of Mexico built huge temples - San Lorenzo and La Venta
    • stlye mixed jaguar and human faces
    • developed tortilla
  9. Chavin de Huantar
    • located in North Peru
    • primarily a center of religioous observances at the Old Temple
    • art features images of snakes, jaguars, caymans, and tropical crops
    • expertise and innovation of textile design
    • 200 BCE began to decline (drought?)
  10. Teotihuancan
    • near Mexico city
    • "The place of the gods"
    • Temple of Quetzalcoatl - human sacrifice
    • used military force
    • monopoly on obsidian - the sharpest material known at the time
  11. Religion and agriculture
    • religion focused on survival - food, birth, pregnancy
    • sophisticated calendars and tracked constellations
    • sun and moon became dieties
  12. Ancient American States
    • large and powerful communities
    • their rulers were able to appropriate labor and goods for many people pver wide geographical areas
    • led to increase if warfare
    • none lasted forever
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HST 163 Terms 1
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