History 1

  1. Why Europe Set up colonies
    1. Natural Resources- land, water, coal, gold. Didnt use paper money- needed gold and silver for coins

    • 2. Power- Countries constantly fighting, want to be bigger.
    • Population- converts for religion and recruits for army, taxes, consumers, labor

    3. scientific

    4. Catholic Converts

    5. Topical/ Exotic Goods- Europe only grew wheat for food- very bland. Wanted sugar- sweetener, preservative.
  2. events of 1400s that lead to expansion
    • 1. Population increases- need more food, space, resources
    • 2. Absolutism- enormous states form- kings have all the power. Nationalism
    • 3. Ottoman Empire rises (islamic)- block European trade routes, need to make new one, threaten to invade Eurpoe
  3. Portugal
    • 1415 tries to get new trade rt to asia.
    • Go around Africa
    • Dont know Africa- if they will find water
    • Keep trying
    • Vasca De Gama eventually fins it
    • Columbus thought he landed in India
  4. Tordesillas Line 1494
    • Pope draws Line in new worls for Spain/ Portugal
    • Other countries cannot explore new nations
    • Portugal already 2nd riches b/c trade rt to Asia, now have sugar from Brazil- begin slave trade

    • Spain
    • Gets majority of North America
    • Encomienda- enslaved native Americans, give them Catholic edu.
    • Found mountains of silver- new currency in Europe
  5. Tordesillas Line 1494/Spain
    • Gets majority of North AmericaEncomienda- enslaved native Americans, give them Catholic edu.Found mountains of silver- new currency in Europe
    • Silver made them the richest nation, used it to build up army and invade other countries. Causes france to explore too because they also want silver
  6. England/Spain in 1500s- Fighting
    • English- Reformation w/ Protestants
    • Spain- launches counter Reformation- get rid of protestants, tries to take over England
    • Protestants went to Americas for religious freedom

    • 1530-1580 France/Eng/Netherlands captured Spanish ships full of silver. They colonize Barbados so they can station ships for supplies
    • English go to North Caroline- colony disapeared, End their bid for colonization
  7. Roanoke/ Hakluyt
    Roanoke- Failed/ disapeared colony, stopped English colonization b/c it cost so much

    • Hakluyt- writter encouraging colonization
    • Thought colonies should be used in Americas for commodities not silver.
    • Also saud get rid of vagrants by having them go to US to work
  8. English Economic Crisis 1580-1620
    • commons- communal forests, farmlands. Lors made it private property- enclosure.
    • Poor became vagrants- wandered around looking for commons. started robbing people
  9. 1607 Jamestown, VA
    • Location chosen because it is low- Spanish wont attack
    • Worst soil, couldnt find goal
    • 1607-1612- Starving Time- monarchs wouldnt send money until profit
    • 1611- Tobacco discovered. supressed hunger, addicting

    Head Right System- each farmer gets 50 acres if they pay for voyage to VA, plus 50 acres per person in family

    Indentured servitude
  10. 1630 Maryland
    Lord Baltimore- Catholic- purchased Maryland for English Catholic refuges

    1640 becomes tobacco planter colony like VA
  11. Barbados 1627
    • Was originally a naval base to attack Spain,but Spanish war ended in 1640. No food/water- going to abandon
    • Sugar Revolution- 100,000 Irish indentured servants die
    • Need other labor- Royal African Co. in 1660 xdng xlz dx
    • Need to expand- go to colonies- find rice instead of sugar
  12. Georgia
    • English had SC, Spain had FL, fight over land
    • King George purchased it
    • General Oglethorpe- military base- wanted to have ppl in debtors prison come have free land, no slavery/alcohol
    • System fails, but colony grows rice
  13. what all southern colonies have in common
    slavery, plantations, monoculture, elite society
  14. Sagadohoc County, Maine
    • 1607-1609 (failed)
    • founded by Enlglish fishermen- cod fish
    • Fishermen introduced smallpox that killed 90% of Native Americans --> opened up land for English settlement
  15. Pilgrims
    • Wanted new church- seperatists
    • Go to Plymouth, MA
    • Establish new Protestand church--> didnt have hierarchy, with a monarchy at the top.
    • Cannot farm in New England, Indians teach them how to grow corn
  16. Puritans
    • Predeterminism
    • Wanted reformation- no alcohol, prostitution, gambeling ect.
    • Started to take over Parliament until Charles 1 bans it
    • The Great Migration led by John Winthrop
    • "Boston will be a 'city on a hill'"

    Congregation system- abolish hierarchy system of church, lead by community

    Universal voting rights for all males over 21 for govenor, mayor, preachers, congress

    Public Schools for boys/girls
  17. Predeterminism
    • Puritans
    • Predeterminism- belief that no matter what you do in your life, if you're going to Heaven/Hell is determined when you're born.
    • The Chosen- ppl who are going to heaven. They are economically successful- show Gods favor
  18. The great migration
    • lead by John Winthrop
    • Puritans- wanted to establish community in Americas with reformed church
  19. New York
    • called New Netherlands from 160-1644
    • Founded for beaver fur trade
    • 1664 adopted Puritan way of life
  20. Pennsylvania
    • Founded by Quakers- William Pen
    • No war/slavery
    • No gender/wealth distinction- no clothes
    • Didnt believe in organized church.
    • Eeryone has an inner light- dont need priests ect to have a relationship with God.
    • Land given by English to get rid of them.
  21. Northern Colonies influenced by religion
    • Plymouth- Pilgrims
    • Boston- Puritans
    • New York- adopted Puritan ways
    • Pennsylvania- Quakers
    • Maryland- Catholic Refuges
  22. 1607-1660 What England had been hoping to gain by colonies
    • 1. Commodities- re-export goods in Europe.
    • Domestic market- local shops increase
    • Tarrifs/import taxes

    2. Society- get rid of vagrants/ ppl who protested church.

    3. Industry- colonies were captured consumers- could only buy English goods.

    4. Shipping/ Shipbuilding- biggest industry in England
  23. Charles III
    • took over England in 1660- Restoration
    • Adopts Merchantalism- use colonies to enrigh England, Navigational Acts
    • If colonies follow navigational acts, they can self govern.
    • Why colonies hate Navigational Acts--> prices for goods drop- limited market. English have monopoly- charge what they want
  24. Navigation Actis
    1. No Dutch or French in Empire

    • 2. Customs Distics- create a central port in each colony- only place where ships can come in/out- English controls who is in colony.
    • 3. Customs Officials- Royal Navy
    • 4. Enumorated Commodities- No goods ssent directly to Dutch/ French
    • 5. No foreign industry- could only buy from Eng
    • 6. No foreign shipping/ ships
  25. Bacon Rebellion
    • Indentured servant system- ran out of land to give
    • Agreement with Native Amer. that English oculd have East and Indians have west
    • Bacon wanted to expand west- gathered 5,000 indentured servants- Indian genocide
  26. Aftermath of the Bacon Rebellion
    1. Realize indentured servitude doesnt work- turned to African Slave trade

    2. New Law System- Racial Caste system, no consequences for mistreatment of slaves

    3.Class System- lower class whites essential for militia. Small land grants taken from plantations for low class- bribe for serving in militia
  27. 1770-1776 Why People started identifying selves as American instead of English
    1. Economy. captive market loosened. North and south started trading- realized they didnt need english. no export taxes

    2. Population. Growing rapidly. Most born in US by end of 1776. People in the back country further away from the coast- not controlled by the English navy

    • 3. Migration.
    • Scot- Irish- fled to US because English enslavement.
    • Germans- brought beer.
    • Convicts. They and the Scot Irish hate english- dont associate identity with them.

    • 4. Salem Witch Trials
    • People stopped going to church until The Great Awakening by John Edwards. North/ south had union in common- national identity
  28. Colonies
    • Jamestown, VA
    • New York
    • Plymouth
    • Georgia
    • Pennsylvania
    • Roanoke
    • Sagadohoc
    • Barbados
    • Maryland
  29. head right system
  30. Indentured Servitide
  31. General Oglethorpe
Card Set
History 1
History 1