congestive heart failure (increase heart rate may cause decrease stroke volume and a reduction in cardiac output)
Constipation ir ileus (even at normal dose in horse and cow)
Crosses the placenta (consider if doing a c-section) will effect the fetus
can cause arrhythmias (arrhtyhmogenic)
longer duration of action up to twice as long as Atropine
Less effect on heart rate and rhythm
Possible less suppression of GI motility
Minimally crosses placenta
licensed for use in dog and cat
more expensive than atropine
What are major tranquilizers known for?
What is the family name of major tranquilizers?
What drugs are under phenothiazine derivatives>
What are the neuroleptics (acepromozine) uses?
Decrease anxiety, produce a "tranquil" state. This effect is reduced in an already excited animal
No analgesic effect
What are the actions for phenothizine derivatives (acepromazine)?
Action is on CNS
What are the clinical effect of acepromazine?
Peripheral vasodilation-predisposes to hypothermia, Hypotension
Reduces seizure threshold: avoid use in patient w/known seizures
Rarely, may see excitement rather than sedation. May last up to 49 hrs
1oarea of drug detoxfication is liver may still see effects 24-48hrs after a single dose
What are the contraindication of acepromazine?
Contraindicated in shocky, hypotension, or anemic patients
Use with caution in animals with cardiovascular disease, toxemia, hepatic disease, geriatric and pediatric patients use cautiously in brachycephalic breeds due to pharyngeal relaxation leading to partial or complete airway obstruction
Boxers,greyhounds, giant breed dogs, collies, and Aust. shepherds may be more sensitive?
Relatively long lasting (several hours duration)
What is the family name for minor tranquilizers?
What drugs are in the benzodiazepines family?
Is diazepam licensed in U.S or Canada for use in animals?
NO but commonly used
True or False Benzodiazepines are antianxiety and calming effect, but no analgesic effect
What reaction does Benzodiazepines have when combine with ketamine?
without ketamine is an excellent skeletal muscle relaxant
Excellent anticonvulsant activity
Minimal adverse effects on cardiovascular and respiratory systems
Also used as appetite stimulant in cats
Diazepam insoluble in water, so not compatible with most other preanesthetic agents. It is also irritating to other tissues and absorbed erratically after IM injection. Midazolam is water soluble. Not recommended in cats (orally)
Controlled substance-proper records are essentials
use in caution in neonates and animals with known liver dysfunction
May see excitement or aggression when used alone (diazepam)
Duration of effect of diazepam 1-4hrs (anticonvulsant effect shorter)
Most commonly used in combination with drugs that induce anesthesia
Reversal agent flumazenil, not commonly used due to expense and lack of severe adverse effects generally seen with these agents
In what family are Pentobarbital and phenobarbital in?
What families are sedatives/hypnotics?
What drugs are in the Thiazine derivatives in?
Xylazine (rompun, Anased)
Medetomidine (Domitor-no longer manufactured)
Where are the receptors found of the thiazine derivatives?
on the symphathetic nerves within the brain and spinal cord
How does sedation happen within the thiazine and barbiturates?
It decreases of norepinephrine released in brain resulting in sedation (last several hours), muscle relaxation, and analgesia
Why should Thiazine derivatives use with caution in young healthy patients?
Alpha -2 adrenoreceptors in heart and blood vessels also affected significant potential for adverse effects.