1. Agriculture
    the process of growing crops from the soil
  2. Aquaculture
    Culectivation or gathering of: shelfish, finfish, aquatic plants in saltwater and freshwater
  3. Administered pricing
    • Marketing board determines price for each crop depending on demend
    • all farmers will recive an equle price for their crops
    • no competion between farmers
    • garnty a fair price
    • no exciding their portion of how many crops can be sold
    • even in bad years for farmers or when the the markiting board bank is on the low farmers will get a fair price which will allow them to live sustanbly
    • farmers are unable to make a profit during good years
  4. Quata system
    • makes it hard for new farmers to enter the industry of farming
    • unables farmers make profit when demened is high
  5. Open Maket
    • Farmers / compertives compete against eachother selling their products
    • farmers can sell their products at best price
    • no restrictions of quantity of products sold
  6. Silo
    if market is low farmers may store their crops
  7. Hunger / malnutrition
    • A strong desire or need for food
    • The discomfort, weakness, or pain caused by a prolonged lack of food
  8. Protein + energy malnutrition
    • -lack of protein (from meat and other)
    • -food which provides energy is mesured in callories which all basic food groups provide
    • -this is the type of malanutrion when world hunger is discussed
  9. food shurtage are due to
    • human & physical factors
    • rising food costs - more people are unable to affor food
    • Luck of food is not the problem! there is enought food but it mostly in developed countries, if all food was distributed equaly then there would be enough food
  10. Erosion
    • soil removed by wind or water
    • caused whn ground is over farmed and all nutrients are sucked out of the ground making the soil into sand which moved by the wind (or when tilling which leaves the soil with no protection)
    • water brings too many nutrients
  11. Salinization of soil
    occures when their is too much rain water or leaching in an area and once the water evaporates all the minerals / salts are left behind.
  12. Types of crops
    • oil seeds
    • forage
    • fruits & vegetables
    • cereals
    • Specialty crops
  13. Cereals
    used for making find=al products such as bread, cheerios, oatmeal
  14. Oilseeds
    used to produce oils for cooking
  15. Specialty crops
    • used for things such as;
    • cotton --> clothing, maple tree --> maple syrup
  16. livestock
    livestock refers to the animals which are raised on farms
  17. Summer fallow
    • technic were you cropp the land for a year then cultivate it the next year
    • done to allow the soil to replnish nutrients "rest"
    • side effects mosture leaves the soil = thus causing erosion
  18. steps that are involved to get farmers products to consumers

    • middle men ----------or---------- farmer market = consumer
    • Packaging
    • marketing (marketing board) open market
    • Processing and packging
    • distribution centeres / warehouses
    • retail grocers and restarunts
    • consumer
  19. Why are there fewer farmers in Canada
    tough job, requres a lot of labour time and is their life all the time (can never leave or go for vaction, as farm takes over all free time)

    risk taker as never know if the year will be good or bad; a lot of crops or will be some weather catstrth, also depense on demend and competion

    Less people are needed to complete the job if big machinery can be used instead
  20. How farming changed over the years
    less people working in the farm industry but farm size increases over teh past years also

    less people needed as michines are more efficent
  21. 4 goals of fair trade
    • Fair compensation for farmers products and labout
    • sustainable enviormental practices
    • Improved social services
    • Investment in local economic infrastructure
  22. 3 cons of using GMO's
    • -GMO's which are ment for animal consumtion only found in human food
    • over use resource from soil / water than normal crops
    • Geneticly modified fish could accidently escape to wilde and causing native fish to dissapear (since they eat more and grow faster)
    • -Artificle genes may cross into different specie i.e. resistance to herbicieds could spread to weeds making weeds resistane to herbicied
  23. 3 pros of GMO's
    • make crops drought resistance or salt tolerant allowing the crops to survive in different parts of the world were they couldent before
    • Increase nutrient absorvation of phospherorus = less animal waste = less ground water pollution
    • modified cells trees = when making pulp or paper less chemicals will be requred
  24. why food prices rising?
    • More people are becoming wealthy in China and India = consume more food, and more meat. = more food needed to be produced. more food is needed to feed animals and space to raise animals
    • Biofuel production crops are used for production of biofules instead of feeding the world population therefore less food is available
    • Fertilizer cost since more grain stock is needed more fertilizer is needed causing the prices of fertilizer to rise.
    • Bad weather & special circumstances flooding global warming causes unusle weather more often
  25. What Impacts do biofules have on food pricing?
    • because bifules use basic staple food for producion of biofule farmiers people and fule companies battle on the limited staple grain food causing pricises rise sky high
    • farmers need grain (staple food) to feed their livestock
    • 25- gallon SUV tank with ethanol could feed 1 person for a year
  26. Farm subsidies
    goverment pay farmers to keep farmers from; going bankrubed during bad season, its tough job, incurge people to work as farmers, incurge farmers to grow specific crop, ensuring for stable afordable food supply and protect national besnusses from international busnises
  27. Types of subsides
    • Direct payments
    • Counter- cyclical payments
    • disaster payments
  28. Direct payment
    • paid at a set rate yearly regardless of condition
    • also for encourage ment of growth of specific crop
  29. counter - cyclical payments
    when market prices are not good the goverment will givefarmers money to compensate for the low peice they are getting for their cropsp
  30. Disaster payment
    • co,pemsate and help when large loss of crops is due to natural phenomena
    • also may farther subsidice to prevent futuer insidnce
  31. Why are subsidice problamtic
    If farmers have enought money then tehy do not have to price their crops as high allowing them to dump prices and send the products to other countries displacing the local farmers because they canot compete with subsidised faramers
  32. convantional agriculture
    • Control of feed
    • Maximum weight gain
    • efficent animal care
    • decrease in land cost
    • increase meat/protien
  33. Charactristics of farminf in the 19th century
    • mainly substance
    • minimal mechanization
    • minimal use chemicals substances
    • highly labour intensive
    • small acreage (farm land)
  34. Cheristristics of farming in 20th century
    • mainly commercial
    • highly mechnized
    • high use of chemical i.e. herbiside fertiliser pestisied
    • minimal labour
    • large acrage
  35. Commercial
    crop that is grown in by farmer to be sold to local and world markets types of commercial agriculture
  36. Intensive
    • small farm which require a large amount of labour mechinery and fertilizers
    • i.e.
    • egg production, dairy farm, hay, vegtables, wine
  37. extensive
    • A farmin which small ampunts of labour mechinety and fertilizers are used on a largefarm yeilds per hectre are small
    • i.e.
    • wheat, canola, barley, free range cattle
  38. Monoculture
    the rasing/growing of one type of crop
  39. Diversified
    • a farm which produces variety of crops and animals
    • i.e. cattle & grain
  40. Horticulture
    vegitables, fruits, nuts
  41. Agriculture
    meat peoduction, dairy, wool
  42. Hazards of chemicals
    • pollution
    • fertilizer - eutrophication
    • pesticide - kills equetic life
    • Soil: decrease micro organisams in soil and increase erosion
    • Mammals: birth defects, cancer, neurologicall disorders
  43. Positive effects of chemicals on agriculture and enviorment
    • helps control large scale weeds or pests control
    • some reduction of soil erosion and moisture loss
    • lower food costs
    • decreasing food abandance
    • aids in preventing natural vaxins and dieases
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