Shikimic acid is used to manufacture Tamiflu, an agent used to treat influenza. What plant is the source of shikimic acid?
This drug acts by triggering kappa opiod receptors in the brain.
There is a poison that causes hot things to feel cold, and cold things to feel hot! Weird, to be sure. What is the chemical?
Resveratrol is a hot seller these days, even though it is not really clear that it will work to keep one young. What is the normal source of resveratrol?
In the common name for Hyoscyamus niger, what does the word "bane" mean?
What part of the plant is the most toxic?
Some animals seem to be immune to the toxic effects of henbane, for example
In medieval medicine, the seeds were heated over coal or charcoal until they produced fumes which were then inhaled as a painkiller or other treatment for _____________.
I told you in class that Datura has been used in traditional settings as an additive to beer, largely to increase the intoxicating effects of low alcohol brews. Has henbane been used in beer recipes?
Before the CIA decided that LSD might be a useful tool in interrogations, who did they test it on?
Who felt that psychoactive chemicals such as LSD would be the weapons of the future? Even argued that, say, spiking a city's water supply with acid and taking over would be much more humane than firebombing it?
In this story, how many adolescents have died from trying to get a "dreamy feeling" by this method?
They are trying to achieve the brief euphoric state caused by cerebral __________, or the cutting off of the oxygen supply to the brain, the CDC said. Most deaths occurred when a child was alone.
The CDC said 22 deaths were identified in 2005, ___ in 2006 and nine in 2007.
Considering that far more children die each year from this than from marijuana, is it time to make possession of a belt illegal?
In this study of people trying to achieve a high by asphyxiation, did the researchers include cases of death during "autoerotic asphyxiation?" Yes or No
This brief abstract explains that between 1959 and the mid 1970s, psychiatrists attempted to use LSD as a treatment for what condition?
How did this fellow consume his Datura? As leaves, seeds, tea?
How long did he say he was tripping on Datura?
When at the police station, what was the charge?
"This week, the Annals of Family Medicine published an analysis of popular drug advertisements that concluded the ads essentially lie to the public about the benefits of pharmaceuticals while utterly ignoring alternative health strategies like __________ or __________ _________
dietary / lifestyle changes
Fill in: (the _____ legalized drug ads in late 1979, after Kessler left his position there)
And then there's the fraudulent practice of off-label prescribing, too, which means that a drug approved for _____ condition can be legally prescribed for ____ conditions, regardless of whether it has undergone a single test for those conditions.
any / all
The US is the only industrialized country in the world that allows pharmaceutical companies to advertise prescription drugs on television. True or False
The world's biggest producer of tobacco used to be the US. Now it is
In China, it is predicted that by 2020 as many as ____ people will die each year from smoking related deaths .
Why did Arabs first outlaw the use of coffee?
some worshippers were using it to stay awake during length prayer sessions
Sir T. Clifford Allbutt was an opponent of coffee, but declared "A patient of [mine] took [60 milligrams] of ________ [every morning]... he persisted in this habit, as being one which gave him no conscious gratification or diversion, but which toned and strengthened him for his deliberations and engagements." (fill in the blank)
"Infants were drugged at _____-____ when mothers could not leave work to breastfeed them, and again when parents returned home exhausted from work."
In this study on the effects of nicotine, how was the nicotine administered? (smoking, pill, patch, chew, snuff, IV)
complete the sentence "nicotine receptors are associated with _________. And specifically attention more than anything else"
this study doesn't argue that people who smoke will benefit.. it only looks at people who suffer from AAMI, that is ____ Associated Memory Impairment.
Goes by common names: Thorn apple and Jimsonweed.
Is it illegal to have datura in your yard?
Datura was used to kidnap sailors. What was this called?
What is a more modern use for datura?
Mixed with beer
What is a possible way to die from datura?
Hyperthermia. You cannot sweat.
Why is it difficult to judge the dosage of Datura?
Each plant is a different mix.
What is a poison in Datura that is used to erase memory formation, and is therefore a date rape drug?
Deadly nightshade is also known as...
Where does the word "Atropa" come from?
The third sister of fate in Greek mythology. Would cut the thread of life.
A drop of this plant juice causes the eye to dilate.
Atropa belladonna contains what alkaloid?
What poison was used by professional poisoners...with a glove! A handshake could kill. Absorbed through the skin.
What drug was applied in a salve, and sometimes applied with a broomstick? Therefore we have witch imagery...
Hyoscyamus niger =
Active ingredient in Henbane?
Was one used to treat Parkinson's disease...
Pre-Roman invasion, European culture was...
Who provided medical care in old Europe?
How did women learn their medicine craft?
Apprenticeship. No writing or books. Years of listening.
What was mostly used to treat ailments?
Medicinal health was inseparable from...
What church made it dangerous for women practicing herbal healing and called them witches?
Who replaces witches as medical practitioners?
What was different about monks as doctors?
They learned from books at University. Still used plants, but without magic.
During the "Age of Patent Medicines," what kind of drugs also become available in Europe?
What act was passed in 1906 in America, and what did it require?
Pure Food in Drug Act. Required labeling.
Starting in the 1600s, Universities began training...
"Doctors of Medicine" or M.D.
Who blended Native American and European medical practices to find "Physiomedicalism"?
What does physiomedicalism claim?
All disease is caused by cold
School of medicine that mixed herbal, Native American, and orthodox practices.
Most illnesses can be treated by manipulation of skeleton and muscles...
Says medicine should support increase in symptoms...
American Medical Association formed in 1906. Believed in what kind of medicine, and what did that mean?
Allopathic medicine. Means medical treatment should counteract symptoms.
Who gave financial support to American Medical Association accredited schools?
Rockefeller and Carnegie
When was the prescription system in the US put in place?
What did the prescription change in terms of how doctors acted?
Doctors no longer sold medicine, they prescribed it. Meaning they wouldn't prescribe medicines that the customer didn't need.
A middle age illness. Severe retention of water. Patient drowns in their own liquids.
Today, dropsy is called what?
Congestive heart failure
What was a long kept secret antidote of dropsy?
Digitalis purpurea =
What does Digitalis purpurea do for person with congestive heart failure?
Slows heart beat and brings it back to a slow, strong beat. Improves circulation.
Who published the first medical trial, and for what disease was it for?
Salix alba =
What plant was used to treat headaches, feer, aching joints, toothache?
Bark of white willow contains what ingredient?
What can you make from salicin?
What is the first product to be taken from natural elements to invent something better? However, it can cause stomach ulcers, and today is only used topically...
This man syntehsizes acetyl salicylic acid.
Acetyl salicylic acid =
First drug sold in tablet form?
What type of drugs counteracts the fever?
What did people used to think diseases came from?
When a disease appears out of nowhere...
Black smut smelled like...
To hide the smell of smut of wheat, what was added?
What came from wheat smut and addition of ginger?
Ginger bread cookies!
Contaminated grain led to the opinion that what kind of bread is the best quality?
How did Romans know their place?
By the color of their bread
Today, what do we do to our flour that removes many of its nutrients?
What did Roman bakers add to bread to make it whiter?
Who ate wheat bread in Roman culture?
What is a sporadic epidemic caused by a fungus that has appeared since the 800s.
With Holy Fire, you get extreme pain where?
Feet and hand.
What color do hands and feet turn in Holy Fire?
Black, as if burned
Do you get hallucination with Holy Fire?
Where does the "Holy" come from with Holy Fire?
God is angry
Holy Fire is also known as...
Saint Anthony's Fire
What is the treatment at early hospitals of Holy Fire?
wheat bread and water
Who looks for a biological cause of Holy Fire?
Black swollen growths on rye that can cause Holy Fire
Ergots only appear...
Give two uses for ergots.
Used by midwives to stimulate contractions. Also used by witches to induce hallucinations.
Why did Holy Fire decline after the late 1600s?
Peasants start eating the potato!
The Salem witchcraft trials were likely an epidemic of what?
Mild ergot that caused women to have tingling in the extremeties and hallucinations.
The third Romanv czar of Russia...
What is the problem with St. Petersburg for a port?
It gets cold in the winter! Therefore ships become landlocked.
What happens that kills many soldiers in Peter's army and stop him from becoming a global power?
Ergtos in rye. Soldiers die of Holy Fire.
In ergots. Used to induce labor.
In ergots. Used to contrict blood vessels, prevent bleeding.
In ergot. Used to treat migraines.
Who discovers LSD?
What is a famous alkaloid found in ergots?
Marriage counseling was once a use for...
Once called the "new plague" of mankind. The most powerful hallucinogen known to man.
Who discovers magic mushrooms in Mexico?
A couple of American tourists visiting a shaman
How did the CIA try and use LSD?
What is the safest way to hallucinate?
Lophopora williamsii =
Peyote contains what, plus 30 other chemicals.
Used in rituals by Indians of Rio Grande region. Not recreational.
What dance relied on peyote?
What did Americans form in 1918?
Native American Church
When was a law passed that protects use of peyote if used as part of religious ceremony?
Psilocybe mexicana =
Magic mushrooms contain what hallucinogenic chemical?
Where was a story of a magic mushroom trip published?
Has a death ever been recorded from mushrooms?
Is selling spores of mushrooms illegal?
Like curare, a name meaning hallucinogenic potion
Contains psychotria viridis and Banisteriopsis caapi.
A big tourist attraction in Central America
One of the many kinds of sage...derives from Mexico
What gives you a short, teni minute high?
Nicotiana tabacum =
What drug was introduced to Europe with claims of being medicinal?
What quickly became the most important export from US?
Why did tobacco companies offer free cigarettes to soldiers during WWII?
Were addicted when they came back, if they weren't before.
A highly addictive stimulant.
Half sized cigarettes, candy flavored, popular in India
Several packs of cigs a day can cause what?
Is it legal to grow your own tobacco?
Yes, but you can't sell it
Nicotine is also used as an...
Number one pesticide today that is a mimic of nicotine...
What has the highest levels of nictine, and used to isolate nicotine for use in insecticide industry...
Theobroma cacao =
Chocolate is known as what?
The food of the gods
The seeds of chocolate are very...
Chocolate drink is sacred to...
Best chocolate seeds used as...
Who introduced chocolate to Europe?
Spain - Cortes
Who added sugar to chocolate?
Largest producers of chocolate?
Brazil and Ivory Coast
Papaver somniferum =
When was opium introduced to Europe?
Mother Bailey's Quieting Syrup was a form of...
Opium. Used to calm children
What famous author may have been an addict of opium?
Edgar Allen Poe
Where did the British grow opium?
Why does China lose Opium War?
Have no cannons or guns
What city was leased to British for 99 years?
What rulers put an end to opium use when they came to power in 1949?
Isolated from opium in 1803. Ten times as potent.
What company introduces heroin?
What was reported to be non-addictive and helpful to morphine addicts?