PBio Test 2

  1. Shikimic acid is used to manufacture Tamiflu, an agent used to treat influenza. What plant is the source of shikimic acid?

  2. This drug acts by triggering kappa opiod receptors in the brain.

  3. There is a poison that causes hot things to feel cold, and cold things to feel hot! Weird, to be sure. What is the chemical?

  4. Resveratrol is a hot seller these days, even though it is not really clear that it will work to keep one young. What is the normal source of resveratrol?

  5. In the common name for Hyoscyamus niger, what does the word "bane" mean?
  6. What part of the plant is the most toxic?

  7. Some animals seem to be immune to the toxic effects of henbane, for example

  8. In medieval medicine, the seeds were heated over coal or charcoal until they produced fumes which were then inhaled as a painkiller or other treatment for _____________.

  9. I told you in class that Datura has been used in traditional settings as an additive to beer, largely to increase the intoxicating effects of low alcohol brews. Has henbane been used in beer recipes?
  10. Before the CIA decided that LSD might be a useful tool in interrogations, who did they test it on?

  11. Who felt that psychoactive chemicals such as LSD would be the weapons of the future? Even argued that, say, spiking a city's water supply with acid and taking over would be much more humane than firebombing it?

  12. In this story, how many adolescents have died from trying to get a "dreamy feeling" by this method?

  13. They are trying to achieve the brief euphoric state caused by cerebral __________, or the cutting off of the oxygen supply to the brain, the CDC said. Most deaths occurred when a child was alone.
  14. The CDC said 22 deaths were identified in 2005, ___ in 2006 and nine in 2007.

  15. Considering that far more children die each year from this than from marijuana, is it time to make possession of a belt illegal?
  16. In this study of people trying to achieve a high by asphyxiation, did the researchers include cases of death during "autoerotic asphyxiation?" Yes or No
  17. This brief abstract explains that between 1959 and the mid 1970s, psychiatrists attempted to use LSD as a treatment for what condition?
  18. How did this fellow consume his Datura? As leaves, seeds, tea?
  19. How long did he say he was tripping on Datura?

  20. When at the police station, what was the charge?
    Disorderly Conduct
  21. "This week, the Annals of Family Medicine published an analysis of popular drug advertisements that concluded the ads essentially lie to the public about the benefits of pharmaceuticals while utterly ignoring alternative health strategies like __________ or __________ _________
    dietary / lifestyle changes
  22. Fill in: (the _____ legalized drug ads in late 1979, after Kessler left his position there)

  23. And then there's the fraudulent practice of off-label prescribing, too, which means that a drug approved for _____ condition can be legally prescribed for ____ conditions, regardless of whether it has undergone a single test for those conditions.
    any / all
  24. The US is the only industrialized country in the world that allows pharmaceutical companies to advertise prescription drugs on television. True or False
  25. The world's biggest producer of tobacco used to be the US. Now it is

  26. In China, it is predicted that by 2020 as many as ____ people will die each year from smoking related deaths .

  27. Why did Arabs first outlaw the use of coffee?
    some worshippers were using it to stay awake during length prayer sessions
  28. Sir T. Clifford Allbutt was an opponent of coffee, but declared "A patient of [mine] took [60 milligrams] of ________ [every morning]... he persisted in this habit, as being one which gave him no conscious gratification or diversion, but which toned and strengthened him for his deliberations and engagements." (fill in the blank)
  29. "Infants were drugged at _____-____ when mothers could not leave work to breastfeed them, and again when parents returned home exhausted from work."
  30. In this study on the effects of nicotine, how was the nicotine administered? (smoking, pill, patch, chew, snuff, IV)
  31. complete the sentence "nicotine receptors are associated with _________. And specifically attention more than anything else"
  32. this study doesn't argue that people who smoke will benefit.. it only looks at people who suffer from AAMI, that is ____ Associated Memory Impairment.
  33. Goes by common names: Thorn apple and Jimsonweed.
    Datura stramonium
  34. Is it illegal to have datura in your yard?
  35. Datura was used to kidnap sailors. What was this called?
    Shang hai
  36. What is a more modern use for datura?
    Mixed with beer
  37. What is a possible way to die from datura?
    Hyperthermia. You cannot sweat.
  38. Why is it difficult to judge the dosage of Datura?
    Each plant is a different mix.
  39. What is a poison in Datura that is used to erase memory formation, and is therefore a date rape drug?
  40. Deadly nightshade is also known as...
    Atropa Belladonna
  41. Where does the word "Atropa" come from?
    The third sister of fate in Greek mythology. Would cut the thread of life.
  42. A drop of this plant juice causes the eye to dilate.
    Atropa belladonna
  43. Atropa belladonna contains what alkaloid?
  44. What poison was used by professional poisoners...with a glove! A handshake could kill. Absorbed through the skin.
  45. What drug was applied in a salve, and sometimes applied with a broomstick? Therefore we have witch imagery...
    Atropa belladonna
  46. Hyoscyamus niger =
  47. Active ingredient in Henbane?
  48. Was one used to treat Parkinson's disease...
  49. Pre-Roman invasion, European culture was...
  50. Who provided medical care in old Europe?
  51. How did women learn their medicine craft?
    Apprenticeship. No writing or books. Years of listening.
  52. What was mostly used to treat ailments?
  53. Medicinal health was inseparable from...
    spritual health
  54. What church made it dangerous for women practicing herbal healing and called them witches?
  55. Who replaces witches as medical practitioners?
  56. What was different about monks as doctors?
    They learned from books at University. Still used plants, but without magic.
  57. During the "Age of Patent Medicines," what kind of drugs also become available in Europe?
  58. What act was passed in 1906 in America, and what did it require?
    Pure Food in Drug Act. Required labeling.
  59. Starting in the 1600s, Universities began training...
    "Doctors of Medicine" or M.D.
  60. Who blended Native American and European medical practices to find "Physiomedicalism"?
    Samuel Thompson
  61. What does physiomedicalism claim?
    All disease is caused by cold
  62. School of medicine that mixed herbal, Native American, and orthodox practices.
  63. Most illnesses can be treated by manipulation of skeleton and muscles...
  64. Says medicine should support increase in symptoms...
  65. American Medical Association formed in 1906. Believed in what kind of medicine, and what did that mean?
    Allopathic medicine. Means medical treatment should counteract symptoms.
  66. Who gave financial support to American Medical Association accredited schools?
    Rockefeller and Carnegie
  67. When was the prescription system in the US put in place?
  68. What did the prescription change in terms of how doctors acted?
    Doctors no longer sold medicine, they prescribed it. Meaning they wouldn't prescribe medicines that the customer didn't need.
  69. A middle age illness. Severe retention of water. Patient drowns in their own liquids.
  70. Today, dropsy is called what?
    Congestive heart failure
  71. What was a long kept secret antidote of dropsy?
  72. Digitalis purpurea =
  73. What does Digitalis purpurea do for person with congestive heart failure?
    Slows heart beat and brings it back to a slow, strong beat. Improves circulation.
  74. Who published the first medical trial, and for what disease was it for?
    Withering. Dropsy
  75. Salix alba =
    White willow
  76. What plant was used to treat headaches, feer, aching joints, toothache?
    Salix alba
  77. Bark of white willow contains what ingredient?
  78. What can you make from salicin?
    Salycyclic acid
  79. What is the first product to be taken from natural elements to invent something better? However, it can cause stomach ulcers, and today is only used topically...
    salycylic acid
  80. This man syntehsizes acetyl salicylic acid.
    Felix Hoffman
  81. Acetyl salicylic acid =
  82. First drug sold in tablet form?
  83. What type of drugs counteracts the fever?
  84. What did people used to think diseases came from?
  85. When a disease appears out of nowhere...
    spontaneous generation
  86. Black smut smelled like...
    dead fish
  87. To hide the smell of smut of wheat, what was added?
  88. What came from wheat smut and addition of ginger?
    Ginger bread cookies!
  89. Contaminated grain led to the opinion that what kind of bread is the best quality?
  90. How did Romans know their place?
    By the color of their bread
  91. Today, what do we do to our flour that removes many of its nutrients?
    Bleach it
  92. What did Roman bakers add to bread to make it whiter?
  93. Who ate wheat bread in Roman culture?
  94. What is a sporadic epidemic caused by a fungus that has appeared since the 800s.
    Holy Fire
  95. With Holy Fire, you get extreme pain where?
    Feet and hand.
  96. What color do hands and feet turn in Holy Fire?
    Black, as if burned
  97. Do you get hallucination with Holy Fire?
  98. Where does the "Holy" come from with Holy Fire?
    God is angry
  99. Holy Fire is also known as...
    Saint Anthony's Fire
  100. What is the treatment at early hospitals of Holy Fire?
    wheat bread and water
  101. Who looks for a biological cause of Holy Fire?
    Dr. Thullier
  102. Black swollen growths on rye that can cause Holy Fire
  103. Ergots only appear...
  104. Give two uses for ergots.
    Used by midwives to stimulate contractions. Also used by witches to induce hallucinations.
  105. Why did Holy Fire decline after the late 1600s?
    Peasants start eating the potato!
  106. The Salem witchcraft trials were likely an epidemic of what?
    Mild ergot that caused women to have tingling in the extremeties and hallucinations.
  107. The third Romanv czar of Russia...
    Peter Romanov
  108. What is the problem with St. Petersburg for a port?
    It gets cold in the winter! Therefore ships become landlocked.
  109. What happens that kills many soldiers in Peter's army and stop him from becoming a global power?
    Ergtos in rye. Soldiers die of Holy Fire.
  110. In ergots. Used to induce labor.
  111. In ergots. Used to contrict blood vessels, prevent bleeding.
  112. In ergot. Used to treat migraines.
  113. Who discovers LSD?
    Albert Hoffman
  114. What is a famous alkaloid found in ergots?
    lysergic acid
  115. Marriage counseling was once a use for...
  116. Once called the "new plague" of mankind. The most powerful hallucinogen known to man.
  117. Who discovers magic mushrooms in Mexico?
    A couple of American tourists visiting a shaman
  118. How did the CIA try and use LSD?
    truth serum
  119. What is the safest way to hallucinate?
  120. Lophopora williamsii =
    Peyote cactus
  121. Peyote contains what, plus 30 other chemicals.
  122. Used in rituals by Indians of Rio Grande region. Not recreational.
  123. What dance relied on peyote?
    Ghost dance
  124. What did Americans form in 1918?
    Native American Church
  125. When was a law passed that protects use of peyote if used as part of religious ceremony?
  126. Psilocybe mexicana =
    Magic mushrooms
  127. Magic mushrooms contain what hallucinogenic chemical?
  128. Where was a story of a magic mushroom trip published?
    Life magazine
  129. Has a death ever been recorded from mushrooms?
  130. Is selling spores of mushrooms illegal?
  131. Like curare, a name meaning hallucinogenic potion
  132. Contains psychotria viridis and Banisteriopsis caapi.
  133. A big tourist attraction in Central America
  134. One of the many kinds of sage...derives from Mexico
    Salvia divinorum
  135. What gives you a short, teni minute high?
  136. Nicotiana tabacum =
  137. What drug was introduced to Europe with claims of being medicinal?
  138. What quickly became the most important export from US?
  139. Why did tobacco companies offer free cigarettes to soldiers during WWII?
    Were addicted when they came back, if they weren't before.
  140. A highly addictive stimulant.
  141. Half sized cigarettes, candy flavored, popular in India
  142. Several packs of cigs a day can cause what?
    Heart failure
  143. Is it legal to grow your own tobacco?
    Yes, but you can't sell it
  144. Nicotine is also used as an...
  145. Number one pesticide today that is a mimic of nicotine...
  146. What has the highest levels of nictine, and used to isolate nicotine for use in insecticide industry...
    Nicotiana rustica
  147. Theobroma cacao =
  148. Chocolate is known as what?
    The food of the gods
  149. The seeds of chocolate are very...
  150. Chocolate drink is sacred to...
    The Aztecs
  151. Best chocolate seeds used as...
  152. Who introduced chocolate to Europe?
    Spain - Cortes
  153. Who added sugar to chocolate?
  154. Largest producers of chocolate?
    Brazil and Ivory Coast
  155. Papaver somniferum =
    Opium poppy
  156. When was opium introduced to Europe?
    The Crusades
  157. Mother Bailey's Quieting Syrup was a form of...
    Opium. Used to calm children
  158. What famous author may have been an addict of opium?
    Edgar Allen Poe
  159. Where did the British grow opium?
  160. Why does China lose Opium War?
    Have no cannons or guns
  161. What city was leased to British for 99 years?
    Hong Kong
  162. What rulers put an end to opium use when they came to power in 1949?
    Communist rulers
  163. Isolated from opium in 1803. Ten times as potent.
  164. What company introduces heroin?
  165. What was reported to be non-addictive and helpful to morphine addicts?
  166. Heroin was used during WWI for...
    soldier's disease
  167. Erythroxylum coca =
  168. Where is Erytrhoxylum coca (cocaine) native to?
    Andean mountains
  169. How was cocaine initially used?
    Chewing leaves
  170. Commonly used by laborers to get work done...
    coca leaves
  171. Becomes all the rage in Paris in 1872.
    Coca wine.
  172. What character was a coca addict?
    Sherlock Holmes
  173. When did cocaine become an illegal drug?
Card Set
PBio Test 2
Ohio University - Trese