Bio Ch. 3

  1. Referring to a fatty acid with fewer than the maximum number of hydrogen atoms bonded to its carbon backbone; a fatty acid with one or more double bonds in its carbon backbone
  2. The covalent bond between the amino group's nitrogen of one amino acid and the carboxyl group's carbon of a second amino acid, joining the two amino acids together in a peptide or protein
    Peptide bond
  3. A chain composed of two or more amino acids linked together by peptide bonds
  4. A subunit of which nucleic acids are composed; a phosphate group bonded to a sugar (deoxyribose in DNA), which is in turn bonded to a nitrogen-containing base (adenine, guanine, cytosine, or thymine in DNA)
  5. The chemical reactions that breaks a covalent bond by means of the addition of hydrogen to the atom on one side of the original bond and a hydroxyl group to the atom on the other side; the reverse of dehydration synthesis
  6. A large carbohydrate molecule composed of branched or unbranched chains of repeating monosaccharide subunits, normally glucose or modified glucose molecules; includes starches, cellulose, and glycogen
  7. Polymer of amino acids joined by peptide bonds
  8. A lipid composed of three fatty acids, some of which are unsaturated, covalently bonded to a molecule of glycerol; liquid at room temperature
  9. The complex three-dimensional structure of a protein composed of more than one peptide chain
    quaternary structure
  10. A class of hormone whose chemical structure (four fused carbon rings with various functional groups) resembles cholesterol; steroids, which are lipid, are secreted by the ovaries and placenta, the testes, and the adrenal cortex
  11. A disaccharide composed of two glucose molecules
  12. a lipid composed of three saturated fatty acids covalently bonded to glycerol; solid at room temperature
  13. A long, branched polymer of glucose that is stored by animals in the muscles and liver and metabolized as a source of energy
  14. A lipid composed of fatty acids covalently bonded to long-chain alcohols
  15. A compound composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, with the approximate chemical formula of 1 C: 2 H: 1 O); includes sugars and starches
  16. A coiled, springlike secondary structure of protein
  17. A disaccharide composed of glucose and galactose; found in mammalian milk
  18. Describing any molecule that does not contain both carbon and hydrogen
  19. The amino acid sequence of a protein
    Primary structure
  20. An organic molecule composed of nucleotide subunits; the two common types of nucleic acids are ribonucleic acid (RNA) and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
    Nucleic acid
  21. A form of secondary structure exhibited by certain proteins, such as silk, in which many protein chains lie side-by-side, with hydrogen bonds holding adjacent chains together
    Pleated sheet
  22. A lipid composed of three fatty-acid molecules bonded to a single glycerol molecule
  23. To disrupt the secondary and/or tertiary structure of a protein while leaving its amino acid sequence intact
  24. A lipid consisting of glycerol bonded to two fatty acids and one phosphate group, which bears another group of atoms, typically charged and containing nitrogen
  25. A three-carbon alcohol to which fatty acids are covalently bonded to make fats and oils
  26. Acronym for a molecule composed of deoxyribose nucleotides; contain the genetic information of all living cells
    deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
  27. One of a number of organic molecules containing large nonpolar regions composed solely of carbon and hydrogen, which make lipids hydrophobic and insoluble in water; includes oils, fats, waxes, phospholipids, and steroids
  28. A chemical reaction in which two molecules are joined by a covalent bond with the simultaneous removal of a hydrogen from one molecule and a hydroxyl group from the other, forming water; the reverse of hydrolysis
    dehydration synthesis
  29. A polysaccharide that is composed of branched or unbranched chains or glucose molecules; used by plants a carbohydrate-storage molecule
  30. A simple carbohydrate molecule, either a monosaccharide or a disaccharide
  31. A repeated, regular structure assumed by protein chains held together by hydrogen bonds; for example, a helix
    Secondary structure
  32. A disaccharide composed of glucose and fructose
  33. Acronym for a molecule composed of ribose nucleotides, each of which consists of a phosphate group, the sugar ribose, and one of the bases adenine, cytosine, guanine, or uracil; transfers hereditary instructions from the nucleus to the cytoplasm
    Ribonucleic acid (RNA)
  34. One of several groups of atoms commonly found in an organic molecule, including hydrogen, hydroxyl, amino, carboxyl, and phosphate groups, that determine the characteristics and chemical reactivity of the molecule
    Functional group
  35. The covalent bond formed between the sulfur atoms of two cysteines in a protein; typically causes the protein to fold by bringing otherwise distant parts of the protein close together
    Disulfide bond
  36. The complex three-dimensional structure of a single peptide chain; held in place by disulfide bonds between cysteines
    Tertiary structure
  37. Acronym for a molecule composed of the sugar ribose, base adenine, and three phosphate groups; the major energy carrier in cells. The last two phosphate groups are attached by high-energy bonds
    ATP (adenosine triphosphate)
  38. Describing a molecule that contains both carbon and hydrogen
  39. The most common monosaccharide, with the molecular formula C6H12O6
  40. Referring to a fatty acid with as many hydrogen atoms as possible bonded to the carbon backbone; a fatty acid with no double bonds in its carbon backbone
  41. The basic molecule unit of all carbohydrates, normally composed of a chain of carbon atoms bonded to hydrogen and hydroxyl groups
  42. The individual subunit of which proteins are made, composed of a central carbon atom bonded to an amino group, a carboxyl group, a hydrogen atom, and a variable group of atoms denoted by the letter R
    amino acid
  43. A small organic molecule, several of which may be bonded together to form a chain called a polymer
  44. A carbohydrate formed by the covalent bonding of two monosaccharides
  45. An organic molecules composed of a long chain of carbon atoms, with a carboxylic acid (COOH) group at one end; may be saturated (all single bonds between the carbon atoms) or unsaturated (one or more double bonds between the carbon atoms)
    Fatty acid
  46. An insoluble carbohydrate composed of glucose subunits; forms the cell wall of plants
  47. A protein catalyst that speeds up the rate of specific biological reactions
  48. A molecule composed of three or more (perhaps thousands) smaller subunits called monomers, which may be identical (for example, the glucose monomers of starch) or different (for example, the amino acids of a protein)
  49. A compound found in the cell walls of fungi and the exoskeletons of insects and some other arthropods; composed of chains of nitrogen-containing, modified glucose molecules
Card Set
Bio Ch. 3
Bio ch. 3