Language Development Chapter 3

  1. Production and Description
    Sounds are classified by similarities and differences
  2. Descriptive Features
    Describes source of sound in the vocal tract
  3. Sound Classes
    Vowels vs. Consonants (PLACE MANNER VOICING)
  4. Shape of the vocal tract
    Position of articulators - point of which the upper and lower articulators touch or approach each other most closely
  5. Contrast
    One sound difference changes meaning "Cat" - "tat"
  6. Phonotactics
    Some sequences/combinations of sounds is not possible or cannot go together "Ml" "CG"
  7. Relationships among phonetic properties
    Patterns of children's attempt to use adult speech
  8. Suprasegmentals
    Pitch, loudness, timing = correct production of stress
  9. Intonation
    Patterns of pitch changes that accompany a phrase or a sentence
  10. Pre-linguistic period
    Period of progression into the production of complex babbling with indetifyable syllables and adult-like intonation patterns
  11. Reflexive vocalizations
    Natural sounds: Automatic response reflecting physical state of infant
  12. Non-Reflexive vocalizations
    Voluntary speech attempts
  13. Production of comfort state vocalizations. Laughing and chuckling. (2-14 months)

    C. Cooing and Laughter
  14. Testing sounds what they can or cannot do. Start raspberries (4-6 months)

    A. Vocal play
  15. Appearances of sequences of consonant - vowel syllables w/ adult-like speed (6 months and up)

    B. Canonical babbling
  16. Strings of sounds and syllables uttered with a rich variety of stress and intonation patterns. Child combines babbling, gesturing, eye contact, as if saying something (10 mos and up)

    B. Jargon
  17. Children starts vocal play w/ the back of the mouth. [back velur consonants and vowels]
    A. 1-6 months
    B. 6-12 months
    A. 1-6 months
  18. Develops consonantal sounds which is closely indetical to first adult-based words
    A. 1-6 months
    B. 6-12 months
    B. 6-12 months
  19. Protoword
    Consistently used made up words acroos object or environment
  20. Cluster reduction
    Child says a word and ommits the part of the cluster (trip = tip)
  21. Writing rules and expressing constraints
    Child phonology rules become useful when we are trying to understand a child's speech pattern
  22. Accuracy of perception
    Correct sound perception leads to correct sound pronunciation
  23. Suprasegmentals-segmental interactions
    Their interaction with stress and intonation. Children pronounces the stressed part of the word more consistently. (baNAna = "NA")
  24. Assimilation
    A change in one sound to make it more like another. (gig = pig/dig)
  25. Canonical forms
    Children uses variegated or reduplicated babbling. Beginning speakers learn word sequences (Consonant-Vowel-Consonant)
  26. Strategies in learning to pronounce
    Some children attempt one word at a time, pronouncing the words that can be pronounced and avoiding other words until learned to pronounce
  27. Changes over time
    Pronunciation develops. From simple production of phonemes to complex production of phonemes.
  28. Most phonological system is in place at age
    age three
  29. Morphophonology
    concerns the kind of variation when comparing the pronunciation of the nat- Nation, Nativity, Native
  30. Morphemes
    smallest unit of word that has meaning
  31. Allomorphs
    inflectionl endings have the same shape regardless of the words it is attached to (dogs-dogz)
Card Set
Language Development Chapter 3
Language Development Chapter 3 Phonological Development