Exam II

  1. Normal WBC count
  2. Left Shift
    body has to use immature WBC components to fight infection.
  3. leukocytes

    attack and destroy foreign matter
  4. Granulocytes
    Eosinophils, Neutrophils, Basophils

    Inflammatory response

    Derive from myeloid stem cells in bone marrow; short lifespan (hrs-days); 60-80% of normal blood leukocytes.
  5. Monocytes
    First responders/Initiate immune response; Inflammatory response; lifespan months-years; some become macrophages; largest WBC;
  6. Lymphocytes
    derive from lymphoid stem cells of bone marrow; primary cells involved in specific immune responses.
  7. Neutrophils
    Most plentiful granulocyte;phagocytic cells (Engulf and Destroy foreign agents such as bacteria and sm. part.); First to arrive.

    10days to maturation; circ 1/2 life 6-10 hrs.
  8. Eosinophils
    3-6 days to maturation; half life in circ 30 minutes, in tissue 12 days.

    Large number in GI ans Resp tracts to help protect against worms. Phagocytic cells.

    Involved in hypersensitivity response by inactivating some infammatory chems released during infammatory response.
  9. Basophils
    Least common: 0.5-1%; not phagocytic; granules within contain proteins and chems like heparin, histamine, bradykinin, serotonin and slow reacting substance of anaphylaxis; these are released during acute hypersensitivity reaction or stress response.
  10. Innate-immunity
  11. Active Immunity
    Specific response; includes memory and active limited responses.
  12. Antibody Mediated (Humoral) Immune Response
    produced by B cells activated by contact with and antigen.
  13. Vascular Response
    Vasodilation; release of histamine, prostaglandins, leudotrienes; redness and heat; edema; inhanced clotting factors.

    Edema, redness, heat.
  14. Cellular Response
    phagocytic process; imigration of leukocytes and phagocytosis.
  15. C-reactive protein
    CRP; may be present with chronic infammation, in blood of pts at risk for hrt disease.
  16. Catabolism
    body tissues broken down
  17. Anabolism
    body tissues built up
  18. Hyperbaric chambers
    forces O2 into cells therefore increasing to above normal rates and promoting healing.
  19. What factors impair wound healing?
    Low protein diet, lack of oxygen, hyperglycemia.
  20. Inflammation SE
    acute pain, impaired tissue integrity, infection
  21. Corticosteroid SE
    mood disorders, moon face, fragile skin, immune suppression, elevated blood sugar, stomach irritation, GI bleeding, osteoporosis, and severe rebound manifestations can occur.
  22. NSAIDS (anti-inflammatory)
    Aspirin, Ibuprofen (Motrin, advil), Celebrex, Diclofenac (Voltaren), Etodolac (Lodine), Fenoprofen (Nalfon), Flurbiprofen (Ansaid), Indomethacin (Indocin), Ketoprofen (Orudis), Meclofenamate sodium (Meclomen), Nabumetone (Relafen), Naproxen (Aleve, Anaprox, Naprosyn), Oxaprozin (Dayprol), Piroxicam (Feldene), Sulindac (Clinoril), Tolmetin (Tolectin), Toradol.
  23. Stages of infection:
    Incubation Period- no manifestations yet

    Prodromal Stage- manifestations appear

    Acute Phase- more severe manifestations appear

    Convalescent Stage- repair, manifestations resolve
  24. Innate Responses

    • Physical Barriers: skin, tears, sweat
    • Hostile Env.: germs everywhere
    • Anti-microbial factors: tears, saliva
    • Resp. Defenses: cilia, coughing
  25. Why older adults have higher risk for infections:
    nutrition, permeable skin, thinner skin, less perfusion...
Card Set
Exam II
Antibiotics, WBC, Immunizations, Inflammation and cancer