Human Microbiology Exam 2

  1. What is the structure of an atom?

    • Protons(+)
    • Neutrons (no charge)

    • Electron shell
    • Electrons (-)
  2. Protons
    Determine what the atom is, atomic number
  3. Electrons
    Determine how the atom reacts chemically
  4. Neutrons
    • impart little bioogical importance
    • Neutrons + protons = atomic weight.
  5. Are atoms electrically neutral?
    Yes, the total positive charge of the nucleus = the total negative charge of the electrons.
  6. Valence shell
    • Shells can hold a specific number of electrons: 2, 8, 8, 18, 18, ect
    • If the outer shell is full the element is nonreactive or inert
    • If the outer shell is not full the element is reactive
  7. Chemical Elements
    • There are 92 naturally occuring elements.
    • 26 commonly found in living things.
  8. Elements of Life
    • Element Symbol Atomic # Atomic Weight
    • Hydrogen H 1 1
    • Carbon C 6 12
    • Nitogen N 7 14
    • Oxygen O 8 16
    • Sodium Na 11 23
    • Magnesium Mg 12 24
    • Phosphorus P 15 31
    • Sulfur S 16 32
    • Chlorine Cl 17 35
    • Potassium K 19 39
    • Calcium Ca 20 40
    • Iron Fe 26 56
    • Iodine I 53 127
  9. Molecules
    Atoms interact with each other in a certain combination to form molecules
  10. Atomic Number
    number of protons in nucleus
  11. Atomic weight
    Total number of protons and neutrons in an atom
  12. Chemical element
    All atoms with the same number of protons
  13. Electronic Configuration
    The arrangement of electron shells corresponding to different energy levels
  14. When is an atom stable or inert?
    When the outer shell is filled
  15. Valence
    "Combining capacity" of an atom is the number of extra or missing electrons in its outermot shell
  16. Compound
    A molecule that contains at least 2 different kinds of atoms
  17. Chemical Bonds
    The attractive force that combines molecules and holds them together.
  18. Ionic Bonds
    When atom gains electrons is acquires an overall negative charge If it loses electrons it gains an overall positive charge. Negatively or positively charged atom (or group of atoms) called ions.
  19. Ionic Bond
    an attraction between ions of opposite charges that hold them together to form a stable molecule.
  20. Cation
    An atoms whose outer electron shell is less than half filled will lose electrons and form positively charged ions
  21. Anion
    An atom whose outer is more than half-filled and gains electron
  22. Covalent bonds
    atoms share one or more electrons
  23. Hydrogen bond
    Hydrogen is interacting with other hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen. Weaker than covalent and ionic bonds. 5% of strength of covalent bonds.
  24. Synthesis Reaction
    two or more atoms , ions, or molecules combine to form new and larger molecules can go both ways.
  25. Ph**
    Amount of hydrogen ions in a solution. Hydrogen makes things acidic. Scale 0-14 lower more acidic, higher more basic. Extremes will cause denaturing of proteins.
  26. H2O
    is a polar molecule. Universal solvent.
  27. Buffers
    compounds that keep the pH the same. Keep the pH stable.
  28. Dehydration
    A+B= AB+H2O
  29. amino acids
    Building blocks of proteins
  30. Hydration
  31. ADP
    Adensine diphosphate
  32. ATP
    Adenisine triphosphate
  33. Toxic Shock Syndrome
    Staph, tampons
  34. Prokaryote
    • bacteria, bacillus, cocci, spiral
    • Peptidoglycan is found in cell walls not eukaryotes
    • Unicellular
    • multiply by binary fission
    • 50S+30S= 70S
  35. Glycocalyx
    sugar coats
  36. virulence
    ability of bacteria to survive in enviroment.
  37. flagella
    tail-like structure that helps bacteria move.
  38. Peritrichous
    flagella all over cell
  39. Amphitruchous
  40. How do flagella attached to G+ and G- bacteria
    Gram+ positive stain thin wall

    Gram- negative stain thick wall peptidoglycan

    In both the flagella attach through hook and spindle to the cell wall
  41. Fimbrae
    helps to attach to the host cells
  42. peptidoglycan layer consists of two primary sugars
    • NAG- acetylglucosamine
    • NAM- acetylmuramic acid

    linked by 10-65 sugars polypetides
  43. lipopolysaccharide
    many fat sugars
  44. Diffusion
    movement from higher to lower concentration. passive process
  45. Facilitated diffusion
    Passive process. Proteins
  46. Osmosis
    Water follows salt movement of solvent molecules Must have semi permeable membrane
  47. Hypertonic
    • High salt content water will flow inside cell.
    • NaCL
  48. Hypertonic
    Low salt content
  49. Isotonic
    no net movement
  50. Active transport
    The cell uses energy in the form of ATP to move substances across the plasma membrane. Usually from outside to inside.

    Ex: Ions, amino acids, simple sugars.
  51. Penicillin
    Interferes with peptidoglycan synthesis
  52. Bacterial species are differentiated by
    morphology, chemical composition, nutritional requirements, biochemical activities and source of energy.
  53. Polypeptides
  54. Study 4.8
  55. Lipopolysaccarides
    LPS cell communication
  56. Membrane Proteins- Fluid Mosaic Model
    Model that describes the plasma membrane that allows things in and out cells
  57. Lysis
    rupturing of the cell
  58. Facilitated diffussion
    Does not pass through cell wall without aid from protein
  59. Pili
    Think penis...used in exchange of DNA
  60. Endoplasmic Reticulum
    Rough- has Ribosomes?
  61. Endosymbiosis
    Smaller cell engulfed by larger cell. mutually beneficial relationship.
  62. Reversible Synthesis
  63. Anabolism
    Synthesis A+B= AB
  64. Catabolism
    Decomposition AB= A+B
  65. Exchange
    NaOH+HCL= naCL+H2O
  66. Water Hydrogen bonding
    • Polar both positive and negative.
    • "association"
  67. Ionization
    Disassociation of salt in water.
  68. Three basic building blocks
    • Carbohydrates
    • Lipids
    • Proteins A.A.
  69. Neuclic Acid
    • DNA/RNA- Nucleotides
    • ATP similar
    • backbone of DNA phosphates
    • ATP=phosphates
  70. Amino Groups
  71. Carboxyl Group
  72. Golgi Complex
    Where lysosomes are formed. 3-20 cisterns that aid in the modification of glycoproteins, glycolipids, and lipoproteins
  73. Mitochondria
    • Central in the production of ATP.
    • 70S ribosomes.
Card Set
Human Microbiology Exam 2
Chapter 2,4,5