Anatomy and Physiology

  1. Three Types of muscle
    • skeletal
    • cardiac
    • smooth
  2. type of muscle that is striated, light and dark, voluntary, neuron controlled
  3. type of muscle that is striated, involuntary, autorhythmiciity, hormones and neurotransmitters change heart rate, etc
  4. type of muscle that has walls of internal strucutres, non-striated, involuntary, and autorhythmicity
    smooth muscle
  5. Functions of muscle
    • 1. producing body movements - involving integrated functions of muscle, joints, and bones
    • 2. stabilizing - postural positions, sustained contractions
    • 3. storing and moving substances - sustaned contraction, sphinters
    • 4. generate heat - thrmogenesis, involuntary shivering (skeletal muscles)
  6. ringlike bands of smooth muscle that close off outlets by the contraction and relaxation of smooth muscle, and also found in gi tract, urine, flow of lymph, and returns blood to the heart
  7. four properties of muscle tissue
    • electrical excitability
    • contractibility
    • extensibility
    • elasticity
  8. electrical signals as a responce to stimuli that travel down the plasma membrane of cell
    action potential
  9. types of stimuli
    • autorhythmic electrical signals
    • chemical stimuli by neurotransmitters, hormones, or ph change
  10. stiulation of actin potential that leads to a sliding of thin filaments across thick filaments
    contractility (correct spelling)
  11. "strecthability," stomach, carciac muscles, allows muscle to contract forcefully when strecthed
  12. ability to return to original size and length
  13. muscle cells are refered to as
    muscle cells
  14. connective tissue surrounds and protects muscular tissue which includes
    • subcutaneous layer
    • fascia
    • epimysium
    • perimysium
    • fascicles
    • endomysium

    • tendon
    • aponeurosis
    • tendon sheaths
  15. also referred to as hypodermis, it separates muscle from skin and is composed of areolar connective tissue and adipose. provides a pathway for nerves, blood vessels, and lymphatic vessels to enter and exit muscles
    subcutaneous layer
  16. stores most of the body's triglycerides and seves as an insulating layer that reduces heat loss, and protects muscle form physical trauma
    adipose tissue
  17. dense shee of dense irrgular connectve tissue that lines tha body walls and limbs and supports and surrounds muscles and other organs of the body; allows free movement
  18. three layers of connctive tissue in skeletal muscle
    • epimysium
    • perimysium
    • endomysium
  19. type of connective tissue encircling the entire muscle; dense irregular
  20. type of connective tissue surrounds groups of 10-100 muscle fibers separating them into bundles called fascicles; dense irregular
  21. type of connective tissue that penetrates the interior of each fascicle and separates individual muscle fibers from one another; also a thin sheath of areolar connective tissue
  22. cord of dense regulare conncective tissue; parallel bundles of collagen fibers; connects muscle to bone
  23. connective tissue elements that extend as a braod, flat later; type of tendon
  24. tubes of connective tissue containing an inner layer called visceral layer attached to the surface area and an outer layer called parietal layer with attached to the bone
    tendon sheaths
  25. stimulates skeletal muscle; threadlike axon entends from spinal cord to a group of skeletal muscle fibers
    somatic motor neurons
  26. small blood vessels found in muscle tissue
  27. enlargement of fibers
  28. increase in the number of fibers
  29. plasma membrane of the cell
  30. thousands of tiny invaginations of sarcolemma; open to the outside of cell; filled with interstitial fluid; where mucle action potiontial travel along sarcolemma and through T tubules to spread throughout mucscle tissue quickly
    transverse tubules
  31. "cytoplasm," involves glycogen involved in ATP synthesis; myoglobin
  32. only in muscles and binds oxygen to diffuse into muscle resulting in the release into muscle for ATP production
  33. contractile organelles of skeletal muscle that entend the entire length of muscle fiber
  34. inside myofibrils and involved in contraction process; includes thick and thin filaments
  35. 2:1 ratio over thick filaments, anchored by z discs, actin
    thin filaments
  36. mysoin proteins is associated with which filament
    thick filament
  37. compartment that contains the filament; basic subunit of myofibrils
  38. sarcomere includes
    • z discs
    • A band
    • I band
    • H zone
    • M line
  39. separation of sarcomeres
    z disc
  40. dark, middle; entire length of thick filament; zone of overlap in sarcomere
    A band
  41. lighter less dense; only thin filaments present with z disc in middle
    I band
  42. only thick filament found here in sacromere
    H zone
  43. middle; proteins that hold thick filaments together at center of H zone
    M line
  44. Muscle proteins include three kinds of proteins found in the myofibrils
    • contractile - generate force furing contraction
    • regulatory - help switch the contraction process on and off
    • structural proteins - keep the thick and thin filaments in the proper alignment, elasticity and extensibility to myofibrils and likn them to the sarcolemma and extracelluar matrix
  45. keep the thick and thin filaments in the proper alignment, elasticity
    and extensibility to myofibrils and likn them to the sarcolemma and
    extracelluar matrix
  46. contracilte proteins in muscle
    myosin and actin
  47. "motor protein" that push and pull cellular structures to acheive movement by the conversion of ATP, a chemical energy, into mechanical energy; myosin head and myosin tail
  48. contains myosin binding sites where myosin head attaches; contains the regulatory proteins tropomyosin and troponin
    actin protein
  49. In a relaxed muscle, myosin is blocked from binding to actin becase strands of ______ cover the mysoin-binding sites on actin
  50. holds tropomyosin strands in place and undergoes a cange in shape when Ca++ binds to it resulting in moving tropomyosin away from mysoin-binding site
  51. calcium binds to troponin and chages shap to move tropomyosin away from myosin-binding site on actin where myosin binds to actin
  52. structural protein results in stability, extensibility, and elasticity of myofibrils and includes the following proteins
    • titin molecules - connect z discs to m-line and return muscle
    • alpha-actin - bind actin to titin
    • myomesin - m-line
    • nebulin - long, nonelastic, wrapped around entire molecule
    • dystrophin - cytoskeletal protein liks thin filaments to sacromere
  53. contraction and relaxation of skeletal muscle fibers involves
    • ATP hydrolysis
    • Attachment of myosin to actin (crossbridges)
    • Power Stroke (sliding of thin filament over thick filament)
    • Detachment of mysoin from actin
  54. process that is essential for contraction of muscle to occur
    sarcoplasmic reticulum releases calcium ions into cytosol; calcium binds to troponin; troponin moves tropmysin away from myosin binding sites
  55. the first step of conctraction cycle
    mysoin head with ATP binding site and ATPase results in the hydolysis of ATP which reorients mysoin head and energizes it
  56. second step of contraction cycle
    attachment of the myosin head with myosin-binding site located on the actin; formation of crossbridge as a release of phosphate group from ATP hydolysis
  57. third step of contraction cycle
    Power Stroke as a result of an opening on the crossbridge where ADP is bound releasing ADP; release of ADP results in the rotation of the myosin crossbridges toward the center of the sarcomere
  58. forth step of contraction cycle
    Detachment of mysoin from actin. Involves the binding of ATP to mysoin head so that crossbridges detach from actin
  59. Step connecting muscle action potential propagating along sarcolemma and through T-tubules to cause a contraction or sliding of filaments
    Excitation-contraction coupling
  60. increase of Ca++ at cytosol
    results in the contraction of muscle
  61. contains large resevoir of Ca++ to be released into the cytosol
    sarcoplasmic reticulum
  62. miscule action traveling along sarcolemma and into t-tubules results directly in the release of calcium from to where
    from sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane to cytosol
  63. plasma membrane of the muscle cell
  64. uses ATP to move Ca++ from cytosol to SR
    Calcium active transport
  65. propagation of action potential means that calcium release channels are open or closed
  66. calcium binding protein in SR which helps SR to have 10000x as many calcium molecules as cytosol in relaxed muscle
  67. indicates how forcefulness of muscle contraction depends on length of the sarcomeres within a muscle before contraction begins
    length-tension relationship
Card Set
Anatomy and Physiology
Muscle Tissue