AHS 235L - Week 2

  1. Most common sites for venipuncture in cats
    Cephalic, jugular
  2. Most common sites for venipuncture in dogs
    Cephalic, jugular, saphenous
  3. Most common sites for venipuncture in horses
  4. Most common sites for venipuncture in cows
    caudal, mammary, jugular
  5. Most common sites for venipuncture in birds
    wing vein, toenail clip
  6. Most common sites for venipuncture in rabbits
    ear vein, toenail clip
  7. Most common sites for venipuncture in rodents
    tail vein, cardiac puncture
  8. Image Upload 1
    What type of anticoagulant? How to properly handle blood after placing it in here? Uses?
    • EDTA (potassium sodium
    • used for hematology, CBC, platelet counts
    • invert 8-10 times after collection
  9. wImage Upload 2
    What type of anticoagulant? How to properly handle blood after placing it in here?
    • Clot activator and gel for serum separation, no anti-coagulant
    • Invert 5 times, allow to clot then centrifuge.
    • Use in chemistries
  10. Image Upload 3
    What type of anticoagulant? How to properly handle blood after placing in here? Uses?
    • Heparin
    • Invert 8-10 times
    • Used in critical RBC measurements, electrolytes, stats.
    • Never use for differnential blood film analysis.
  11. Image Upload 4
    What type of anticoagulant? Uses? How to properly handle blood after?
    • Citrate
    • Coagulation assay, transfusion
    • Invert 8-10 times
  12. What are granulocytes?
    • Basophils, neutrophils, eosinophils
    • have granules in the cytoplasm
  13. What are non-granulocytes?
    • Lymphocytes, monocytes
    • Do not have granules in cytoplasm
  14. What should be labled on all blood tubes?
    Date and time collected, owner name and patient name
  15. What is a WBC differnential? Which WBCs are being evaluated?
    • The WBC differential is performed in the smear monolayer by using oil immersion and is used to find abnormalities not detected by hematology analyzers. Used to dtermine % of WBC types.
    • Neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils and basophils are evaluatd.
  16. Describe all the steps for creating a wedge film blood smear
    • 1. Place a small drop of blood smear near one end of the microscope slide
    • 2.Place the narrow edge of a second slide (spreader slide) against the surface of the first slide at a 30 degree angle.
    • 3. Draw the spreader slide back into the drop of blood
    • 4. Allow the blood to spread along more of the width of the edge of the spreader slide
    • 5.Push the spreader slide forward with a steady, even rapid motion
    • 6. Wave the slide gently to allow it to air dry
  17. Explain the types of stain is used to stain a blood smear
    • Commonly avaliable Romanowsky stains include Wright's stain, Weight-Giemsa stain and Diff-quick.
    • Usually nclude a fixative and buffered solution of eosin and methylene blue.
    • The fixative is usually 95% methanol.
    • The eosin component is buffered at an acidic pH and stains the basic components of the cells such as hemoglobin and eosinophilic granules. The methylene blue component is buffered to an alkaline pH and stains the acidic compenent of the cell.
  18. Explain the process for doing a WBC differential and how to calculate the % of each type of WBC
    • count, identify and record 100 whtie blood cells in the microscope field in the monolayer just adjacent to the feathered edge using oil immersion.
    • ex. 10 monocytes out of 100 WBC = 10% monocytes
  19. How would you calculate absolute values from a WBC count differential?
    Total white blood cell count x %WBC = absolute number
  20. What is hemolysis?
    destruction of erythrocytes
  21. What is lipemia?
    presence of fatty material in plasma or serum
  22. What is icteric?
    Abnormal yellowish discoloration of skin, mucous membranes, or plasma as a result of increased concentration of bile pigments
  23. What are platelets?
    Aka thrombocytes. are the cells circulating in the blood that are involved in the cellular mechanisms of primary hemostasis leading to the formation of clots
  24. What is a CBC?
    complete blood count
  25. Image Upload 5
    Lymphocyte, agranulocyte
  26. Image Upload 6
    Monocyte, agranulocyte
  27. Image Upload 7
    Eosinophil, granulocyte
  28. Image Upload 8
    Basophil, granulocyte
  29. Image Upload 9
    Neutrophil, granulocyte
  30. Under which power total magnification do we visualize a blood film for a differential white blood cell count?
  31. Cellular components of whole blood?
    • Erythrocytes (red blood cells)
    • Leukocytes (white blood cells)
    • Thrombocytes (platelets)
  32. Content/characteristics of plasma?
    • protein - albumin, globulin
    • soluble fibrinogen
    • lipids, metabolic waste, dissolved gases (carbon dioxide, nitrogen, oxygen), electrolytes
    • 90% water, 10% dissolved constiuents
    • anticoagulant added and then centrifuged
  33. What is serum?
    • PLasma without fibrinogen
    • Use SST (tiger top tube, serum separator) tub eused without anticoagulant
  34. What are the reference ranges?
    Species, gender, sexual status, age
  35. Name the different types of white blood cells
    Neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils
  36. -penia
    decrease in number of cells
  37. -philia or -cytosis
    increase in the number of cells
  38. What type of anticoagulant is in the red top tube? What are its uses?
    None, it is used for chemistries
  39. What are blood films used to perform?
    Differential WBC count, estimate platelet numbers and evaluate morphology of WBCs, RBCs, and platelets.
  40. Describe the staining technique for blood films
    • 1. Fixative- light blue solution - 1 minute
    • 2. Stain - Fuschia solutoin - 30-45 minutes
    • 3. Countertain - Deep purple solutoin - 30-45 seconds
  41. Name the advantages and disadvantages of manual counts with wright-giemsa stains
    • Adv: RBC morphology better seen
    • Disadv: labor intensive.
Card Set
AHS 235L - Week 2
Common Blood Collection Sites and Blood Handling Techniques