Unit 2

  1. Functions of the vertebral Column
    • - Encloses and protects the spinal cord.
    • - Acts as a support for the trunk
    • - Supports the skull superiorly
    • - Provdes attachment for the deep muscles of the back and the ribs laterally
  2. Vertebral discs
    firbocartilage interposed between the vertebrae and act as cushions
  3. Characteristics of the Atlas
    The first cervical vertebra (C1) is a ring-like structure with no body and a very short spinous process

    The anterior portion of the ring receives the dens, then the transverse atlantal ligament divides the anterior with the posterior. The posterior portion transmits the spinal cord.
  4. Characteristics of the Axis
    • Has a strong conical process arising from the upper surface of its body. This process is called the dens or odontoid process.
    • Is received into the anterior portion of the atlantal ring to act as a pivot for the altas.
  5. Characteristics of the seventh cervical vertebra

    the Vertebra Prominens

    has a long prominent spinous process that projects almost horizontally to the posterior. The spinous process of C-7 is easily palapable at the posterior base of the neck.
  6. Name the typical and atypical vertebra of the
    cervical spine
    typical vertebra C-3 through C-6

    Atypical vertebra C-1, C-2, and C-7
  7. Zygapophyseal Joints of the cervical spine
    The zygapophyseal facet joints of the second through seventh cervical vertebrae lie at right angles to the mid-sagittal plane and are clearly shown in a lateral projection.
  8. Invertebral Foramina of the cervical spine
    • the intervertebral foramina of the cervical region oar directed anteriorly at a 45 degree angle from the mid-sagittal plane of the body.
    • Accurate images demonstrating the foramina require a 15 degree angle cephalic of the central ray and a 45 degree rotation of the patient.
  9. Zygapophyseal joints visualized in a lateral projection
    In a lateral projection, both the left and the right zygapophyseal joints are superimposed
  10. positioning to visualized the Intervertebral Foramina
    of the cervical spine
    Angle cephalic 15 degrees

    LPO visualizes the RIGHT intervertebral foramina

    RPO visualizes the LEFT intervertebral foramina
  11. If you were to take the oblique projections of the cervical vertebrae in PA (RAO and LAO) what changes?
    1. the central ray would be aimed 15 degrees caudal

    • 2. the LEFT intervertebral vertebra would be visualized in an LAO
    • and the RIGHT intervertebral vertebra would be visualized in the RAO
  12. What are the structures shown for the AP projection of the C-spine
    C-3 through C-7 in an AP projection
  13. What is the name for the swimmers done in an erect position?
    Twining Method
  14. What is the name of the swimmers done in a supine position?
    Pawlow Method
  15. Costal Facets
    The posterolateral margins of each thoracic body have costal facets for articulation with the heads of the ribs.
  16. demifacet (half-facet)
    In the thoracic vertebrae T-1 has a demifacet on its inferior border for articulation with the head of the second rib. the bodies of the second through eighth thoracic vertebrae contain demifacets superiorly and inferiorly. the ninth thoracic vertebra only has a superior demifacet.
  17. bifid tip
    the spinous processes of the cervical vertebrae are short and have double pointed (bifid) tips (pg. 370)
Card Set
Unit 2
C-spine and T-spine