PHILO 101 - 3

  1. Moral Realism
    pragmatic social philosophy unfettered by moral considerations
  2. Ethnocentrism
    Greek: "the race is the center"

    belief that the customs and beliefs of one's own culture are inherently superior to all others
  3. Barbarian
    Greek: term used to mock people who spoke in other languages; referred to other cultures considered "less than human" or uncivilized
  4. Sophos
    Greek: "wise"

    Sage/Wise man; term applied to the first philosophers
  5. Rational Discourse
    the interplay of carefully argued ideas; the use of reason to order, clarify, and identify reality and truth according to agreed-upon standards of verification
  6. Cosmos
    Greek: "ordered whole"

    First used by Pythagoreans to characterize the universe as an ordered whole consisting of harmonies of contrasting elements
  7. Psyche
    Greek: "Soul"

    combination of mind and soul, including capacity for reflective thinking
  8. Logos
    Greek: "intelligence", "speech", "discourse", "thought", "reason", "word", "meaning"

    rule according to which all things are accomplished and the law found in all things
  9. Cosmology
    the study of the universe as an ordered system
  10. reductio ad absurdum
    Latin: "reduce to absurdity"

    form of argument that refutes an opponent's position by showing that accepting it leads to absurd, unacceptable, or contradictory conclusions
  11. Atomism
    materialistic view that the universe consists entirely of empty space and ultimately simple entities that combine to form objects
  12. Atoms
    Greek: "indivisible", "having no parts", "uncuttable"

    minute material particles; the ultimate material constituents of all things
  13. Sophists
    paid teachers of rhetoric;

    relativists who taught that might makes right, truth is a matter of appearance and convention, and power is the ultimate value
  14. Pragmatism
    Greek: "deed"

    empirically based philosophy that defines knowledge and truth in terms of practical consequences
  15. Mores
    social traditions
Card Set
PHILO 101 - 3
Ch. 3