SOC101: Exam I

  1. Social status
    Position or location that a person can occupy within a society
  2. Sociology
    Scientific study of interactions and relations mong human beings
  3. Naive observer
    Untrained social observer
  4. Ascribed status
    Social position assigned at birth
  5. Achieved status
    Social position "earned" through one's own efforts
  6. How did sociology come about?
    • Industrial evolution
    • Political evolution
    • Traveling
  7. Auguste Comte
    • Coined the term of sociology
    • Law of 3 stages (history of the sources of people's knowledge):
    • 1) Theological stage (religious leaders)
    • 2) Metaphysical stage (philosophers)
    • 3) Scientific stage (scientific principles)
  8. Emile Durkheim
    • Said that social solidarity is based on people's tendency to be social creatures.
    • Mechanical vs organic solidarity
    • Collective conscience
  9. Mechanical solidarity
    People of a community function together as a simple machine
  10. Collective conscience
    Shared ideas values and goals led from similar circumstances
  11. Organic solidarity
    People depend on each other, functioning of a variety of parts like organs in a body.
  12. Ferdinand Tonnies
    • Gemeinschaft
    • Gesellschaft
  13. Gemeinschaft
    Social relationship, ends in and of themselves
  14. Gesellschaft
    Social relationship, means to specific ends
  15. Max Weber
    Noticed trend in the decline of nonrational behavior, growth in rational (calculating, more efficient)
  16. Karl Marx
    • Exemplar of conflict paradigm
    • Only economics mattered in society; ideas, values, art, etc. epiphenomenal
    • Society divided as proletariat and bourgeoisie
  17. Bourgeoisie
    Owned the means of production
  18. Proletariat
    Survived by selling labor to bourgeoisie
  19. Herbert Spencer
    • Social darwinism
    • Survival of the fittest
  20. W.E.B. DuBois
    • 1st African to obtain Ph.D
    • Importance of race and ethnicity in society
  21. C. Wright Mills
    Said that people have individualistic bias and don't realize the social forces that effect problems (sociological imagination)
  22. Sociological imagination
    Comprehending the relationship between the personal and social world
  23. Suicide and integration
    Durkheim said that the rate of suicide varies with the degree of social integration; degree to which people have strong ties with their social groups
  24. Institutional racism
    Racism as a result of factors built into social systems
  25. Robert K. Merton
    • Manifest and latent functions
    • Functional vs. dysfunctional (positive vs negative effects)
  26. Chaos theory
    Sensitive dependence on initial conditions (small initial difference may lead to bigger outcome)
  27. Paradigms in sociology
    • Functional
    • Conflict
    • Symbolic interaction
  28. Functionalist paradigm
    • Society made of integrated parts
    • Stability and equilibrium
    • Structure and function
    • Conflict is a dysfunction, not normal
  29. Conflict paradigm
    • Conflicting values and goals
    • Competition for resources, struggle for power beneath surface
    • Conflict is normal
    • Human history - history of class conflict
  30. Symbolic interactionist paradigm
    • Symbols and attached meaning
    • How people act depends on how they see and evaluate reality
    • People learn from others how to see and evaluate reality
    • Social constructionists, intersted in how people construct social worlds
  31. Macrosociology
    • Focus on social structure and institutions
    • Functionalist and conflict
  32. Microsociology
    • Interactions of individuals and context of interactions
    • Symbolic interactionist
  33. Rules of evidence
    • Accuracy
    • Does it support conclusion?
    • Any relevant evidence left out?
  34. Informal fallacies
    • Fallacies of presumption
    • Relevance fallacies
    • Fallacies of the wrong level
  35. Fallacies of presumption
    • Hasty generalization
    • False bifurcation
    • Fallacy of false cause
  36. Relevance fallacies
    Appeal to irrelevant authority (one, many, select few, tradition)
  37. Fallacies of the wrong level
    • Ecological fallacy (info @ group level =/= inividual level)
    • Reductionist fallacy (individual level =/= group level)
  38. GIGO
    • Garbage in, garbage out
    • Bad data in, bad data out
  39. Theory
    Attempt to explain something, an idea about why something happens
  40. Understand something theoretically
    • Define
    • Describe
    • Explain
  41. Concepts
    words that isolate features of the world which are important
  42. Definition
    • Gives understanding of what the important concepts around which theories are built
    • or
    • A variable - tells about nature of a thing
  43. Description
    Selective and comprehensive
  44. Explanation
    • Subjective
    • Offering persuasive explanation by offering evidence that is logically linked to conclusion
  45. Empirical world
    Observed through the use of physical senses
  46. Inconvenient facts
    • Max Weber
    • Evidence that contradicts what people believe, or want to believe about the social world
  47. Enthnocentrism
    • Process of judging other's customs and norms as inferior to one's own
    • Can lead to genocide
  48. Genocide
    Murder of an entire race/people
  49. Cultuarl relativism
    Belief that other people and their ways can be understood only in terms of the cultural context of these people
  50. Variable
    Thing that is thought to influence or be influenced by another thing
  51. Attribute
    Characteristic that describes a thing
  52. Hypothesis
    Predicted relationship between variables
  53. Independent variable
    Influences other variables
  54. Dependent variable
    Influenced by other variables
  55. Positive relationship
    Variables that vary in same direction
  56. Negative relationship
    Variables that vary in opposite direction
  57. Operationalizing
    • Transform variables into things that can be observed and measured
    • Exhaustive (everything in a category)
    • Mutally exclusive (thing shouldn't be able to fit into more than one category)
  58. Individualism
    Focus on needs of the individual as opposed to the needs ot the collective.
  59. Statements
    • Relational
    • Existence
  60. Research methods
    • Survey
    • Experiment
    • Observation
    • Unobtrusive research
  61. Quantitative research
    Expressed in numbers
  62. Qualitative research
    Predict and understand social behavior, as well as meaning
  63. Literature review
    Reviewing existing literature on topic
  64. Survey
    • Interviews and self-administered questionnaire
    • Open vs closed ended questions
    • + studies large groups of people
    • + get demographic info and attitudes
    • - Hard to get people's actual behavior
  65. Experiment
    • Manipulates independent variable to observe its effect on a dependent variable
    • + determines cause and effect
    • - Research questions must be narrowly defined
  66. Control group
    Group that helps determine the outcome is due to variable or not
  67. Sample
    Portion of a population studied to make inferences about the entire population.
  68. Observation
    • Observes behavior in their natural environments (field research)
    • + Observe behavior in natural context
    • + Information on people who can't fill out questionnaires
    • - Most labor-intensive
    • - Only small groups can be observed at once
  69. Unobtrusive research
    • Studying behavior without having impact on subjects
    • 3 types: Artifacts, existing statistics, content analysis
    • + No impact on subjects
    • + No cooperation of subjects needed
    • - Can only study things that leave traces that are solid enough to last
  70. Hawthorne effect
    Change in people's behavior because they are subjects of research.
  71. Triangulation
    Use of more than one research method to balance out strengths and weaknesses
  72. Heterogeneity vs. homogeneity
    Very diverse population, larger samples needed vs. less diverse, smaller samples needed
  73. Random samples
    Every element in the population has the same probability of being in the sample
  74. Ethics
    Need informed consent from people who participates in research
  75. IRBs
    • Institutional Review Boards
    • Examines research plans
Card Set
SOC101: Exam I
Exam I study guide for Intro Sociology