1. peptidoglycan
    structural molecule of bacteria cell walls
  2. binary fission
    prokaryotic cell reproduction by division into two daughter cells
  3. mitosis
    a eukaryotic cell replication where chromosomes are duplicated; follwed by division of the cytoplasm if the cell
  4. eukaryotic
    dna inside a membrane-enclosed nucleus; organisms that can interbreed
  5. prokaryotic
    general material not in nuclear envelope; share certain rRNA sequences
  6. spontaneous generation
    the idea that life could arise spontaneously from non-living matter
  7. germ theory of disease
    principle that microorganisms cause disease
  8. biogenesis
    theory that living cells arise only from pre-exsisting cells
  9. fungi
    eukaryotic absorbtive chemoheterotroph
  10. teichoic acid
    a polysacharide found in gram POSITIVE cell walls
  11. nucleus
    part of the atom consisting of the protons and neutrons; part of eukaryotic cell that contains genetic material
  12. nucleolus
    area in eukaryotic nucleus where rRNA is synthesized
  13. chloroplast
    organelle that performs photosynthesis in photoautotrophic eukaryotics
  14. mitochondria
    energy production in a cell
  15. lysosomes
    organelle containing digestive enzymes
  16. golgi body
    Sorting center for proteins in cell; Produces vesicles which fuse with plasma membrane
  17. ribosome
    site of protien synthesis
  18. endoplasmic reticulum
    Site of protein synthesis in cells; Start of protein export process; Connected to nuclear pores and Golgi body
  19. plasma membrane
    phospholipid bilayer that controls movement of substances into and out of cells
  20. chromosome
    contains genes, structure that carries hereditary info
  21. capsule
    outter covering on some bacteria composed of a polysaccharide or polypeptide
  22. flagella
    thin appendage from surface of cell used for cellular movement
  23. endospore
    a resting structure formed inside some bacteria
  24. fimbriae
    appendage on bacterial cell used for attachment
  25. pili
    appendage on a bacterial cell used for conjugtaion and gliding motility
  26. cilia
    short cellular projection from eukaryotic cells, composed of 9 pairs and 2 microtubles
  27. phospholipid
    complex lipid composed of glycerol two fatty acids and a phosphate group
  28. DNA
    nucleic acid of genetic material in all cells and some viruses
  29. condenser
    lens system located below stage that directs light rays through the specimen
  30. ocular lens
    lens closest to veiwer, eyepeice
  31. objective lens
    the lens closest to the specimen
  32. osmotic pressure
    solvent moves from a solution of lower solute concentration to a high solte concentration
  33. lipopolysaccharide
    molecule consisting of a lipid and a polysaccharide forming outter membrane of gram- NEGATIVE cell walls
  34. krebs
    pathway that convert 2-carbon compund to c02 transfering electrons and NAD and other carriers
  35. aerobe
    an organism requiring molecular oxugen for growth
  36. bacilli
    any rod shape bacterium
  37. cocci
    spherical or oval bacterium
  38. spirochete
    corkscrew-shaped bacteria with axial filament
  39. hooke
    discover marked the cell theory- all living things are composed of cells
  40. lister
    aseptic surgury used phenol solution to reduce death caused by microorganisms
  41. pasteur
    disproved spontaneous generation
  42. hubble law
    movement of galadies away from us
  43. age of the universe
    + or - 15 billion years
  44. big bang nucleosynthesis produced
    large amounts of helium
  45. penzias and wilson
    measure temp to be 3k, won nobel prize in physics
  46. suns energy comes from
    hydrogen fusing to form helium
  47. sun formed from and how long ago?
    5 billion years ago from gravitational field initiating fusion
  48. accretion
    forms planets and moon (earth and moon are the same age)
  49. earth is how old?
    4.6 billion years old
  50. early atmosphere
    no oxygen and mainly nitrogen carbon dioxide and water
  51. characteristics of life
    • composed of cells
    • reproduce in kind
    • metabolism
    • respond to stimuli
  52. chemical evolution
    no oxygen requires energy hydrogen nitrogen carbon and time
  53. RNA has
    • catalytic activity
    • structural capability
    • info carrying capability
  54. prokaryotic cells appeared
    3.5 billion years ago
  55. eukarotic cells appeaed
    2.5 billion years ago
  56. evidence of evolution
    • radiometeric dating
    • fossil records
    • dna sequence
    • and lab experiments
  57. Ptolemy described
    refraction of water
  58. Seneca described
    magnification by a globe of water
  59. Alhazen described
    optical principle and eye anatomy
  60. bacon described
    simple magnification
  61. hooke described
    the "cell" in a living organism
  62. van leeuwenhoek described
    bacteria blood protozoa and sperm with a single lens microscope
  63. chromaic aberreration
    dif wavelengths of light are refracted through lens at different angles
  64. spherical abberation
    light hits edges casing distortion
  65. total magnification
    ocular x objective
  66. refractive index
    measure of velocity of light passing trough a substance
  67. oil immersion
    prevents light scattering between slide and objective lens
  68. scientific method
    • observation
    • hypothesis
    • test hypothesis
    • accept/reject/reuse hypothesis
  69. abiogenesis
    life arises from inorganic or non living material
  70. van helmont
    grains and shirt = mice supported spontaneous generation
  71. redi
    tested spontaneous generation with maggots on meat
  72. needham
    believed flies do not arise spontaneously
  73. spallanzani
    flasks sealed by melting glass remained sterile when boilded
  74. schwann
    made something to sterilize air going into the flask, results supported bogenesis
  75. pasteur
    developed swan neck flask dealing with heated air problems
  76. koch
    developed relationship between microorganisms and disease. discover cause of anthrax and tuberculosis
  77. brown
    descibed the nucleus
  78. schwann and schleiden
    advanced cell theory
  79. cell theory
    • organisms composed of cells
    • cells are basic unit of life
    • cells arise from preexisting cells
  80. prokaryotic cell
    • basic
    • no nucleus
    • bacteria
    • difuses faster
    • smallest - nuclear material is circular
  81. eukaryotic cell
    • true
    • nucleus
    • larger
    • nuclear material linear- chromosomes
  82. 3 basic shapesof bacteria
    • cocci - spheres
    • bacillus- rods
    • spirochete- corkscrew
  83. hydrophobic tails
    on the inside of the plasma membrane
  84. hydrophillic tails
    the otter part of the plasma membrane
  85. function of plasma membrane
    • boundry
    • recognition
    • energy
    • diffusion
    • active transport
    • bulk transport
  86. simple diffusion
    movement of small uncharged molecules
  87. osmosis
    diffusionof water inresponce to solute concentration
  88. facilitated diffusion
    diffusion using a channle protien
  89. diffusion
    movement of molecules from HIGH to LOW concentration
  90. hypotonic
    solute concentratonless outside the cell than the inside
  91. hypertonic
    solute concentration greater outside cell than the inside
  92. active transport
    movement against energy concentration gradient requires energy
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