Doctrine of 2 Spheres
- Men were to follow production out of the household, and women were to remain responsible for reproduction at home.
- Women were supposed to be pious, pure, submissive and domestic.
- Women were excluded from political and other realms at the time, their powerlessness following them through the patriarchal system.
Standard North American Family (SNAF)
An ideological code that distorts family reality and glorifies the two-parent family model.
Refers to the living arrangements of residence. While it's members carry out domestic functions, they are not necessarily considered a family.
Refers to a set of social relationships of a kinship group, it's members not necessarily living within the same household.
Reasons for Marriage during the Colonial Period
- Social and economic purposes of larger kin groups.
- Romantic love was not absent, but marriage was more of a contractual agreement.
3 Themes of Family History
Uneven change, diversity, and social agency.
Families in different social classes, different races, and immigrant groups all experienced different rates of change, thus the “modern family form”applies mostly to white families.
Broad differences in the U.S. population that make generalizations about "the family" impossible.
Families are active agents rather than passive victims of change.
Beliefs that that are held uncritically and without examination or scrutiny.
Research techniques based on subjective analysis.
Research based on the analysis of numerical data.
Erving Goffman's Frontstage/Backstage Analogy
- Backstage: people are free to act in ways they would not in public.
- Frontstage: much of the intimacy of family life remains hidden behind ____ performances--behavior to maintain a proper appearance in front of others.
Status of Women during Colonial Period (in comparison to Modern)
- Women's and Men's work converged in the household economy.
- Role of Women = wide ranging community obligations.
- A shortage of women enhanced the status of women, though still expected to be subordinate to their husbands.
Status of Women during Modern Period (in comparison to Colonial)
- Separation of men's commercial labor and women's domestic labor.
- Role of women = domestic caretaker who was subordinate to patriarchal head of household.
The varied ways in which people make a living.
The maintenance of life on a daily basis, including food, clothing, shelter, and emotional activity.
Instead of breaking their kinship ties, families used them to adapt to industrial life and encouraged other kin from their country of origin to migrate.
Effects of the Great Depression
- Nation-wide unemployment.
- The marriage and birth rate fell.
- Reshaped family structures by tearing families apart.
- The poor became even poorer.
Contribution of Non-Whites during Industrialization
Racial inequalities were used to build the capitalist economy.Various forms of coercive labor like sharecropping and contract labor were reserved for people of color.
Characterisitics of Black Families during Slavery
- Two parent households.
- The gender system imposed by Whites.
- Men and women were laborers.
- Strong kinship ties were the most powerful support. Kinship patterns connected unrelated slaves into families.
Dominant Image of Family in Media
A warm and happy realm: two heterosexually married adults and their children living together comfortably, and going about their lives in mutually satisfying and harmonious ways.
1st Wave of Immigration
- 1830 - 1882
- English, Irish, German, and Scandinavian
2nd Wave of Immigration
- 1882 - 1930
- Southern and Eastern Europeans
Social Breakdown Perspective
Many immigrants were wrongly blamed for economic and social problems that originated within society itself, having been seen as unstable for having no family ties.
Cult of True Womanhood
As class distinctions sharpened, social attitudes toward women became polarized and the highly unobtainable ideal image of a “lady” was elevated to a status symbol.