BI 102 test 1

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  1. homeostasis
    the process of maintaining favorable conditions inside the body
  2. organ
    structural unit that is composed of two or more tissues and adapted to carry out a particular task
  3. organ system
    organs that interact closely in some task
  4. stem cell
    a cell that can divide and create more stem cells or differtiate to become a specialized cell type
  5. tissue
    a collection of one or more specific cell types that are organized in a way that suits them to a task
  6. connective tissue
    animal tissue with an extensive extracellular matrix; provides structural and functional support
  7. endocrine gland
    ductless gland that secretes hormones into a body fluid
  8. epithelial tissue
    sheetlike animal tissue that covers outer body surfaces and lines internal tubes and cavities
  9. exocrine gland
    gland that secretes milk, sweat saliva, or some ther substance through a duct
  10. fibroblast
    main cell type in soft connective tissue; secretes collagen and other components of extracellular matrix
  11. gland
    cluster of secretory epithelial cells
  12. adipose tissue
    connective tissue with fat-storing cels
  13. blood
    fluid connective with cells that form inside bones
  14. bone tissue
    connective tissue with cells surrounded by a mineral-hardened matrix of their own secretions
  15. cardiac muscle tissue
    striated, involuntary muscle of the heart wall
  16. cartilage
    connective tissue with cells surrounded by a rubbery matrix of their own secretions
  17. dense connective tissue
    connective tissue with many fibroblasts and fibers in a random or a regular arrangement
  18. loose connective tissue
    connective tissue with relatively few fibroblasts and fibers scattered in its matrix
  19. skeletal muscle tissue
    striated, vluntary muscle that interacts with bone to move body parts
  20. smooth muscle tissue
    involuntary muscle that lines blood vessels and hollow organs; not striated
  21. dermis
    deep layer of skin that consists of connective tissue with nerves and blood vessels running through it
  22. epidermis
    outermost, epithelial skin layer
  23. nervous tissue
    animal tissue composed of neurons and supporting cells; detects stimuli and controls responses to them
  24. neuron
    main type of cell in nervous tissue; transmits electrical signals along its plasma membrane and communicates with other cells through chemical messages
  25. negative feedback
    a change causes a response that reverses the change
  26. sensory receptor
    cell or cell component that detects stimuli and signals the brain
  27. epithelial tissues
    are sheetlike with one free surface
  28. a basement membrane
    connects epithelium to underlying connective tissue
  29. most animals have glands derived from
    epithelial tissue
  30. only epithelial cells
    have cilia or microvilli at their surface
  31. the most abundant protein in the human body is
    collagen made by fibroblasts
  32. blood
    is mostly plasma
  33. your body converts excess carbohydrates and proteins to fats which accumulate in
    adipose tissue cells
  34. connective tissues
    are the body's most abundant and widely distributed tissue
  35. cells of ___ can shorten (contract)
    muscle tissue
  36. _____ muscle tissue has a striated appearance
    skeletal and cardiac
  37. ____ detects and integrates information about changes and controls responses to those changes
    nervous tissue
  38. thin cytoplasmic projections from cells called ____ carry signals between your spinal cord and your toes
  39. the functions of skin include
    • defense against pathogens
    • production of vitamin D
    • helping to cool the body
  40. when the level of sugar in your blood falls too low, your body senses this decline and coverts glycogen to sugar, putting more sugar into your blood. this is an example of
    negative feedback & homeostasis
  41. epidermis
    outermost skin layer
  42. exocrine gland
    secretes through duct
  43. endocrine gland
    ductless hormone secretor
  44. cardiac muscle
    in heart only
  45. cartilage
    support in ears and nose
  46. smooth muscle
    contracts, not striated
  47. blood
    plasma, platelets and cells
  48. melanin
    darkens skin
  49. endoskeleton
    hard internal parts that muscles attach to and move
  50. exoskeleton
    hard external parts that muscles attach to and move
  51. hydrostatic skeleton
    fluid-filled chamber that muscles act on, redistributing the fluid
  52. intervertebral disk
    cartilage disk between two vertebrae
  53. vertebrae
    bones of the backbone
  54. vertebral column
    the backbone
  55. arthritis
    chronic inflammation of a joint
  56. cartilaginous joint
    joint where cartilage holds bones together and provides cushioning, as between vertebrae
  57. combact bone
    dense bone with concentric layers of matrix
  58. dislocation
    bones of a joint are out of place
  59. fibrous joint
    joint where dense connective tissue holds bones firmly in place
  60. joint
    region where bones come together
  61. ligament
    dense connective tissue that holds bones together at a joint
  62. osteoporosis
    disorder in which bones weaken
  63. red marrow
    bone marrow that makes blood cells
  64. spongy bone
    lightweight bone with many internal spaces
  65. sprain
    ligaments of a joint are injured
  66. synovial joint
    joint such as the knee that is lubricated by fluid and allows movement of bones around the joint
  67. yellow marrow
    bone marrow that is mostly fat; fill cavity in most long bones
  68. actin
    globular protein; in thin filaments of muscle fibers
  69. myofibrils
    threadlike, cross-banded skeletal muscle components that consist of sarcomeres arranged end to end
  70. myosin
    motor protein with a club-shaped head; in thick filaments of muscle fibers
  71. sarcomere
    contractile unit of skeletal and cardiac muscle
  72. tendon
    strap of dense connective tissue that connects a skeletal muscle to bone
  73. muscle fatigue
    decrease in a muscle's ability to contract despite ongoing stimulation
  74. muscle tension
    force exerted by a contracting muscle
  75. a hydrostatic skeleton consists of ___
    a fluid in an enclosed space
  76. bones are ___
    • mineral reservoirs
    • skeletal muscle's partners
    • sites where blood cells form (some bones only)
  77. the human backbone ___
    • consists of vertebrae and intervertebral cartilage disks
    • has a shape adapted to upright walking
    • encloses the spinal cord
  78. bones move when ___ muscles contract
  79. a ligament connects __
    bones at a joint
  80. binding the ATP to ___ activates it and prepares it to take part in muscle contraction
  81. release of ___ from intracellular storage allows actin and myosin to interact
    calcium ions
  82. ATP for muscle contraction can be formed by ___
    • aerobic respiration
    • lactate fermentation
    • creatine phosphate breakdown
  83. a motor unit is ___
    a motor neuron and the muscle fibers it controls
  84. a muscle can ___ bone
    pull on
  85. what protein makes up the thick filaments in a sarcomere?
  86. the knee is a ___ joint
  87. femur
  88. radius
    forearm bone
  89. vertebrae
    segments of backbone
  90. sternum
  91. cranial bones
    part of skull
  92. muscle fatigue
    decline in muscle tension
  93. muscle twitch
    brief contraction
  94. muscle tension
    force exerted by contraction
  95. muscular dystrophy
    genetic disorder of muscles
  96. osteoporosis
    decline in bone density
  97. arthritis
    chronic joint inflammation
  98. sprain
    damange to ligaments
  99. dislocation
    misplaced bones
  100. lactate fermentation
    makes ATP without oxygen
  101. aerobic respiration
    makes ATP; requires oxygen
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BI 102 test 1
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