Biology Quiz 8 Review

  1. Heredity
    The passing of traits from parents to their children.
  2. Trait
    A specific characteristic that varies from one individual to another.
  3. DNA
    A nucleic acid that contains the sugar deoxyribose.
  4. Chromosome
    A threadlike structure within the nucleus containing the genetic information that is passed from one generation of cells to the next.
  5. Gene
    A sequence of DNA that codes for a protein and thus determines a trait.
  6. Allele
    One of a number of different forms of a gene.
  7. Genotype
    A genetic makeup of an organism.
  8. Phenotype
    Physical characteristics of an organism.
  9. Punnett Square
    Diagrams showing the gene combinations that might result from a genetic cross.
  10. Heterozygous
    A term used to refer to an organism that has two different alleles for the same trait.
  11. Homozygous
    A term used to refer to an organism that has two identical alleles for a particular trait.
  12. Dominant
    A trait that is seen whenever a single copy of its gene is inherited.
  13. Recessive
    A trait that is seen only when a copy of its gene is inherited from each parent.
  14. Nucleotide
    A monomer of nucleic acids made up of a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base.
  15. DNA replication
    A copying process in which a cell duplicates its DNA before it divides, resulting in two cells that each have complete sets of DNA molecules.
  16. Complementary base sequence
    The standard arrangement of bases in nucleotides in relation to their opposite pairing, such as thymine being paired with adenine and cytosine paired with guanine.
  17. Transcription
    A process in which part of the nucleotide sequence of DNA is copied into a complementary sequence in RNA.
  18. Translation
    The decoding of an mRNA message into a polypeptide chain.
  19. mRNA
    An RNA molecule that carries copies of instructions for the assembly of amino acids into proteins from DNA to the rest of the cell.
  20. tRNA
    A type of RNA molecule that transfers amino acids to ribosomes during protein synthesis.
  21. Ribosome
    A small particle in the cell of which proteins are assembled, made of RNA and protein.
  22. Growing protein chain
    Amino acids linked by peptide bonds into a chain of water-soluble protein.
Card Set
Biology Quiz 8 Review
A review set for Natasha