DPT 470

  1. Vertigo - patient complaints
    • giddiness
    • dizziness
    • room spinning and/or people swaying
    • any of above --> nausea
  2. Vertigo - causes
    • postural hypotension
    • hypertension
    • minor cerebral vascular insufficiency
    • drug side effects
    • strong emotions
  3. Vertigo - prevention
    • prevent sudden arupt changes in general body position or cerebral position
    • rise slowly from bed/chair
    • avoid fast rotation of head
  4. vertigo - at the time: if patient is dizzy
    • slow down movements
    • have patient lie down
    • have patient bend over slowly with head at knee level
  5. fainting/ syncope
    • partial or complete loss of consciousness
    • due to: decreased blood supply to the brain for a short time
    • recovery: occurs when person falls or is laid down
  6. fainting/syncope - causes
    • hyperventilation
    • hypoglycemia
    • anema
    • vasomotor instability
    • shock
  7. fainting: signs and symptoms
    • paleness
    • sweating
    • coldness of skin
    • possible dizziness
    • numbness and tingling of hands and feet
    • nausea
    • possible vision blurriness
    • pulse in usually weak, rapid and irregular
  8. fainting: treatment
    • if already collapsed/ supine = leave peron lying down with head lower than body ... elevate legs
    • complains of dizziness = get to sitting and then slowly lower head between the knees
    • loosen tigh clothes
    • if vomits = turn head and wipe out mouth
    • maintain open airway
    • may use smelling salts
    • apply cool compress to forehead, back of neck, chest
    • DO NOT: pour water over the face; give liquid until totally revived
    • watch carefully afterward
  9. nausea
    patient feels as if they are going to vomit
  10. nausea - treatment
    • if patient is supine: elevate trunk/head slightly
    • if patient is standing: sit down until sensation subsides; do not lie down flat
    • in any case: loosen tight clothes, provide fresh air, observe carefully, provide emesis basin/towel
    • salt crackers/light soda usually "settle" patients: careful=drinking could induce vomitting
  11. epistaxis
    • aka noseblood
    • amount of blood loss varies
    • could swallow blood then vomit
  12. epistaxis- causes
    • skull fracture
    • facila injury (direct blow)
    • sinusitis
    • infectin
    • hypertension
    • some bleeding diseases or disorders
    • p/o sinus/nasal surgery
    • high altitude
    • violent exertion
  13. epistaxis: treatment
    • apply pressure by piniching the nostrils or "packing" the nose
    • keep patient sitting whenever possible - so blood will not automatically aspirate into the lungs
    • lean patient forward
    • keep patient forward - anxiety can increase blood pressure
    • applying ice over nose is also helpful
  14. seizures
    • abnormal brain waves: petit mal vs. gran aml
    • may have presignals: dazed look, eyes glazed, unusual visual/olfactory sensation
  15. seizures - treatment
    • smelling salts
    • come out of it naturally
    • protect the tongue.. no
  16. seizure with convulsions (grand mal)
    • attack of unconsciousness
    • usually violent onset
    • can beassociated with head injury or brain disease: localized and rigidity and jerking of groups of muscles instead of whole body
  17. seizure with convulsions (grand mal) - signs
    • body musculature becomes rigid (30 seconds) leading to jerking movements
    • rigid period: may stop breathing, bite tongue, lose bowel and bladder control, develop bluish discoloration of face/lips, exhibit drooling/ foaming
  18. seizure with convulsions (grand mal) - treatment
    • prevent person from hurting self: cushion head
    • keep person lying down: if possible move to side
    • monitor airway, breathign, circulation
    • keep airway open: give articial respiration if necessary
    • clear obstacles from pathway: Do NOT restrain
    • do not five anything to eat/drink
    • call 911 or hospital/facility emergency number
Card Set
DPT 470
Basic Procedures