a component of a message that contains information that directly relates to some dreaded effect that could be suffered by the persuadee or by persons for whom this person is responsible, such as a child. Three factors appear to be important in regard to the impact of fear appeals- the extent to which the object of fear is presented in extreme or noxious language, the likelihood that the fear event will occur, and the persuadee’s ability to make a protective response.
seeking compliance (persuasive influence in an interpersonal context) by connecting a request with details that essentially ask the target to comply because of friendship, etc. “If you like me or because you like me (or we like one another), you should grant my request.”
persons use cognitive processes to reduce each persuasive argument to its component parts (the information contained) and compare them to the opinions they hold. Assumes people want correct and useful attitudes and will expend the effort needed to obtain and process information to do so. Involvement is a mediating variable that influences how a message will affect attitudes or behavior.
as people encounter a message that expresses an attitude, they compare the attitude in the message against the attitude position they hold. Present in the mind whenever a person receives a new message
CENTRAL COGNITIVE PROCESSING
requires mindful cognitive processing that includes evaluation of message content. Likely to lead to lasting cognitions and predict behavior, until these cognitions are challenged by other cogent arguments.
a method of persuasion employed mostly by sales people in which they attempt to persuade people by making a large request first, followed then by a smaller request. The idea is that one can always “sell down”, starting with the expensive merchandize first then moving to the less expensive.
positive or negative preference
“preference that predisposes the person to one choice or behavior versus another.”
refers to the right and ability each participant has to define, direct, and delimit the actions that transpire during interaction. Often varies, at least by topic and context, between participants.
the study of how people communicate with distance and space ranging from architecture to the positioning of one person’s body in relation to another’s during interaction.
The last phase of relationship dissolution. The partners communicate to get over the relationship: to do so, they engage in retrospection, and present the “breakup” story to their acquaintances.
a contest for scarce resources or positions in which participants are ego-involved. Can include perceived interference with communication partners’ efforts to achieve relational or other personal goals. One factor central to conflict is power- ability one person has to affect the behavior or feelings of another.
occurs when interactants are in complementary states at the same times so that their efforts match one another.
ORIENTATION STAGE OF DISCLOSURE
occurs in public areas. At this stage, the level of intimacy is that typical of initial interactions when people first meet and start to become acquainted.
DEPTH / QUALITY OF DISCLOSURE
Depth refers to the intimate detail on each topic during disclosure and quality refers to the number or breadth of topics that can be shared.
explains why communication is patterned and repetitive as well as unique and creative. Action assembly postulates that individuals usually can think of social behaviors needed to achieve communication goals, but a problem exists when they think that they have low personal competency and, therefore, anticipate they will be affected negatively by communication outcomes.
explains that people that are similar stick together. Situations require people to be more mindful than they would be in different circumstances. Assumes that communication competence depends on individuals’ ability to perform in ways that enhance interactions in order to achieve their goals. Asserts that communication consists primarily of scripted behaviors that people use to present themselves favorably to their communication partners.
in everyday activities, people engage in a relatively unsophisticated version of the kind of observation and analysis that social scientists use when conducting laboratory experiments.
ATTRIBUTION BY PERSON
assigning motives to explain why people at as they do. Attributions made about what people disclose and why they disclose those details affect whether the relationship seems rewarding. Affects how people make sense of what others disclose to them.
whereby one person asks the other about the condition of the relationship.
TRIAL INTIMACY MOVES
including becoming physically close or touching, disclosure, or public presentation in which the target individual is put on display or confronted with information to observe his or her reaction. --- as a means for uncertainty reduction
includes forced choices, physical separation, and testing limits. – as a means for uncertainty reduction
sees if the target individual will respond by showing jealousy. – as a means for uncertainty reduction
checks to test whether the person will remain to or violate the relationship. – as a means for uncertainty reduction
employed when one person in an interaction attempts to be like and be liked by another. Is likely to occur when rewards for doing so outweigh the costs.
PLANS THAT ARE TOO COMPLEX
the person employing it may suffer a loss of fluency because he or she cannot decide which variation of the plan to employ at the given moment.
occurs when individuals use information received verbally and nonverbally during interaction to interpret who their partner is and why he or she acts as is the case.