1. Be able to recognize the structural formulas of these molecules
    • Organic compounds with C, H, and O, also have two or more OH (hydroxyl) groups. The ratio between hydrogen and oxygen is 2:1 (just like in water).
    • •Includes: monosaccharides, disaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides.
  2. 1) Monosaccharides (glucose and fructose)
    Simple carbohydrates with 3-7 carbons,usually pass through membranes.Three examples are glucose, galactose,and fructose, which are mainly produced by digestion of complex carbohydrates.
  3. 2) Disaccharides (sucrose)
    are two monosaccharides, held together by oxygen, but unable to pass through cell membranes. Some of them are water soluble and/or require an enzyme to separate.
  4. 3) Polysaccharides (starch and glycogen)
    • •Long chains of glucose form the polysaccharides.
    • •Starch produced by plants is digested by amylase
    • •Cellulose gives structure to plants, fiber to our diet
    • •Glycogen is an energy storage polysaccharide produced by animals; found mostly in muscle and liver cells.
  5. b. LIPIDS
    • •Hydrophobic organic molecules with C, H, very little O, and one type has N and P.
    • •Lipids with fatty acids:
    • –triglycerides
    • –phospholipids
    • •Lipids without fatty acids:
    • –steroids
  6. 1) saturated fatty acid
    A long hydrocarbon chain, with acarboxyl group on one end, a methyl group on the other, and only single carbon to carbon bonds. They are usually solid at room temperature.
  7. 2) unsaturated fatty acid
    A long hydrocarbon chain, with a carboxyl group on one end, a methyl group on the other and contain at least one double C to C bond and tend to be liquid at room temperature; could hold more H.
  8. 3) triglyceride
    A lipid that contains three fatty acids bonded to glycerol. They can be classified as saturated, unsaturated, or polyunsaturated.
  9. 4)phospholipid
    A lipid composed of a nitrogen-containing group, a phosphate, glycerol, and two fatty acids. Has one of each one saturated and unsaturated
  10. Distinguish between the polar and nonpolar ends of a phospholipid and the solubility differences.
    • The nitrogen-containing group and phosphate end is hydrophilic because of the polar covalent bonds.
    • The two fatty acids have nonpolar covalent bonds which makes them hydrophobic.
  11. 5)cholesterol (steroid)
    Steroids are modified cholesterol molecules with a 4-ring structure with a variety of functional groups and location of double bonds
  12. c. PROTEINS
    Organic molecules with C, H, O, N, some have P, S, I. The functional groups include amino and carboxyl. Proteins are chains of amino acids with peptide bonds. Shape and sequence of amino acids determine ability to function.
  13. 1) amino acid
    Amino acids contain an amino group, carboxyl group, and an R group.There are 20 different amino acids.
  14. 2) peptide bond
    special covalent bond between the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of another
  15. Describe the importance of structure in proteins
    • Primary structureis a single chainof amino acidswith peptidebonds betweenthem.
    • Secondary structure isa single chain of aminoacids with peptidebonds and hydrogenbonds.There are two shapes:ahelix and β sheet.
    • Tertiary structure is acomplex globularmolecule with peptidebonds, hydrogen bonds,and ionic bondsbetween R-groups.
    • Quaternary structure istwo or more separatechains of amino acidsbonded and interacting,often in a globular shape.
  16. Define denaturation
    is the loss of shape in a protein due to high temperature or a change in pH levels. In some cases the change is permanent and in others it is temporary.
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