1. What percent of microorganisms are pathogens?
  2. What does it mean when microorganisms are ubiquitous?
    they are everywhere
  3. What are normal flora?
    • normal microbiota
    • good bacteria and microorganisms
  4. What are nomally expected to be present in the body?
    normal flora
  5. What benefits the body by making vitamins, competes with pathogens, and digests for the body?
    normal flora
  6. What are nomal flora that would make a person ill under special circumstances?
  7. What are different versions of microorganisms called?
  8. What 3 factors influence development of infectious disease?
    • how pathogenic the organism is
    • how many pathogens are present
    • strength of host's immune system
  9. What group of patients are at a higher risk of infection?
    young, old, immunosuppressed
  10. What 3 shapes of bacteria are we studying?
    coccus, bacillus, and spiral forms
  11. What shape do coccus bacteria form?
  12. What type of bacteria are usually found in groups?
  13. What are two coccus found together?
  14. What is a chain of coccus shaped bacteria?
  15. What shape do bacillus bacteria form?
  16. How are bacillus shaped bacteria often found?
  17. What is a pair of bacillus called?
  18. What is a chain of bacillus bacteria called?
  19. What is a round-rod shaped bacteria called?
  20. What are 3 types of spiral formed bacteria?
    • spirillum
    • spirochete
    • vibrio
  21. What spiral formed bacteria has axial fillaments?
  22. What type of bacteria is Lyme disease and syphallis?
  23. What is the glycocalx structure of bacteria known as?
  24. What helps some bacteria attach to a surface?
    glycocalx "capsule"
  25. What allows streptococcus mutans to adhere to the teeth?
    glycocalx capsule
  26. What is the formation of plaque known as?
  27. What stops phagoyctosis of bacteria?
    glycocalx capsule
  28. What do axial filaments do in bacteria?
    allow movement
  29. How many flagella can bacteria have?
  30. What is flagella an extension of?
    the cell's membrane
  31. What are the two different pili of bacteria?
    • attachment pili
    • conjugation pili
  32. What is another name for the attachment pili?
  33. What do conjugation pili of bacteria do?
    attach one bacteria to another to share DNA
  34. What is the bacteria cell wall made of?
    peptidoglycan - protein and sugar
  35. What does the cell wall of bacteria do?
    • protect it from outside organisms
    • protect it from bursting so it can swell with nurients and water
  36. What are the three types of cell wall bacteria can have?
    • gram positive
    • gram negative
    • acid fast
  37. What type of bacteria cell wall is thick and layered mesh of peptidoglycan?
    gram positive
  38. What type of bacterial cell wall has a thin layer of peptidoglycan surrounded by an outer membrane?
    gram negative
  39. What type of bacteria cell wall has a thin layer of petidoglycan surrounded by thick wax layers?
    acid fast
  40. Do all bacteria have a cell wall?
    • No
    • ex. Mycoplasma
  41. What 3 structures are found inside all bacteria?
    cell membrane and cytoplasm and ribosomes
  42. What is made of a phospholipid bilayer?
    cell membrane
  43. What 5 things are found in bacteria's cytoplasm?
    • fluid, ribosomes, nucleoid
    • (sometimes plasmids, endospores)
  44. What are the 8 components of a gram negative bacteria?
    • DNA/ RNA
    • Cytoplasm
    • Ribosomes
    • cell membrane
    • Thin peptidoglycan
    • outer membrane with lipopolysacharrides and porinproteins
  45. What are the 4 compontents of a gram positive bacteria?
    • DNA/ RNA
    • cytoplasm and ribosomes
    • cell membrance
    • thick layer of peptidoglycan
  46. What are the 5 components of an acid fast bacteria?
    • DNA/ RNA
    • cytoplasm and ribosomes
    • cell membrane
    • thin peptidoglycan
    • thick wax with porinproteins
  47. What are 2 names lipopolysaccharides are also called?
    • Lipid A
    • LPS
  48. What does a gram negative bacteria release into the blood tream when it dies?
  49. What are endotoxins made from?
    lipopolysaccharides in outer membrane of gram negative bacteria
  50. What 2 things do porin proteins do?
    • protect from harmful things/
    • allow good things into the bacteria
  51. What 6 complications come from endotoxins in the blood stream?
    • fever (brain damage)
    • low BP
    • swelling
    • shock (due to interior blood vessel damage over-clotting, resulting in lack of blood flow and oxygen to the body)
    • hemorraging
  52. What are hollow channels through the outer membrane on gram negative bacteria, and wax walls of acid fast bacteria?
    porin proteins
  53. What type of bacteria is the most resistant to antibiotics, and why?
    acid fast because porin proteins are so narrow
  54. What is a digestive enzyme called?
  55. Where are lysozymes found?
    • in lysosomes
    • excretions (urine, sweat, tears, etc)
  56. What digestive enzyme digests peptidoglycan(bacteria cell wall material)?
  57. What do our bodily excretions have in them to protect against gram positive and some gram negative bacteria?
  58. What are the characteristics of the bacterial cell membrane, cystoplasm, ribosomes, nuclear area, and DNA?
    • cell membrane (semi permeable, phospholipid bilayer, selects passage of nutrients)
    • cytoplasm (hypertonic with more solutes and water inside than out)
    • ribosomes (synthesize protein)
    • nuclear area (also called neucloid, contains DNA)
    • DNA (genetic material for making bacteria, involved in reproduction)
  59. What are 2 differences between human cells and bacterial cells that antibiotics sometimes target?
    • cell wall (peptidoglycan)
    • ribosomes (10s smaller than our cell's)
  60. What 2 extra abilities might a plasmid give bacteria?
    • antibiotic resistance
    • exotoxin production
  61. What are 4 characteristics of plasmids?
    • bacteria can have between 0-100
    • plasmids smaller than DNA
    • plasmids copied when binary fission occurs
    • provides cell with extra abilities
  62. What are 2 groups of endospores?
    Bacillus and Clostridium
  63. When are endospores a problem?
    when bacteria's survival is challenged
  64. What do plasmids make that can be made by any microogranism, is excreted constantly when made, and causes different signs and symptoms?
  65. What is the 4-step process a bacteria goes through to become and endospore?
    • bacteria is challenged
    • bacteria copies DNA
    • bacteria makes new cell wall around DNA within cell
    • bacteria dies, endospore survives
  66. What is the process of an endospore becoming bacteria?
    • conditions for bacteria are good
    • endospore swells and becomes bacteria
    • bacteria contninues binary fission
Card Set
micro lec