Proteins are digested or broken down by the _____ in the stomach.
Parasympathetic stomach impulses cause all of the following except which one?
B) secretion of somatostatin
The alkaline tide occurs when _____ is secreted into the blood.
B) bicarbonate ions
The _____ duct directly receives the fluids from the gallbladder.
The common bile duct is formed by the merger of the hepatic and _____ ducts.
The ampulla of Vater is the area that joins the common bile duct to the _____ duct.
Bile facilitates digestion by causing the _____ of fats.
Amylase could be found in all of these areas except which one?
Most of the absorption of nutrients occurs in the _____.
Fatty acids and glycerol are released when _____ are broken down by liver or muscle cells.
The ileocecal valve prevents chyme from entering the _____.
D) large intestine
The frenulum is the membrane attached to the inferior surface of the _____.
Which lymphatic areas are most commonly the sites of inflammation?
C) palatine tonsils
The _____ part of the stomach is the area connected to the esophagus.
The _____ prevents food from entering the small intestine.
A) pyloric valve
What is the stimulus for cholecystokinin release?
What blocks pancreatic secretions from entering the duodenum?
C) sphincter of Oddi
Which of the following triggers the formation of the others?
Which of the following are NOT active in the duodenum?
Secretin from the duodenum causes the pancreas to produce secretions rich in _____.
Which of these is a hormone name?
The hormone which causes the pancreas to secrete an enzyme rich fluid is _____.
Which of the following vitamins is NOT stored in the liver?
Which of the following is NOT a function of the adult liver?
The liver contains special blood channels termed _____.
The Kupffer cells are phagocytic cells found in the _____.
Which of the following acts to inhibit acid production?
Which area has the greatest amount of enzyme activity?
The finger-like extensions inside the small intestine are called _____ and increase the surface area.
Which salivary glands produce the most viscous saliva with lots of mucus?
D) sublingual glands
What initiates the swallowing reflex?
B) sensory receptors detecting the bolus in the pharynx
Intrinsic factor is secreted by which cells of the gastric glands?
B) parietal cells
The pancreas secretes enzymes that enter the small intestine and chemically digest chyme. Choose the enzyme(s) that break(s) down fats.
A) pancreatic lipase
What hormone does the small intestine release in response to acidic chyme?
How are the components of fats absorbed in the small intestine?
C) Components of lipids diffuse through small intestinal cell membranes, are reconstructed in the cells, and then carried off by lacteals as chylomicrons
The surface area of the stomach is enhanced by the presence of folds called _____.
The enterogastric reflex normally inhibits the further contraction of the stomach as the duodenum fills.
What is the effect of the release of cholecystokinin on the pancreas?
Pancreas releases more enzymes in the pancreatic juice
Acid chyme is buffered by __________ secreted from the pancreas.
Digestion of which of the following would be affected the most if the liver were severely damaged?
Where is vitamin B12 is primarily absorbed?
Bile is forced up the cystic duct through the closing of the
A. sphincter of Oddi.
What is the blood vessel in the middle of the liver lobule that receives blood from the hepatic sinusoids?
A. Central vein
This organ contains lobules with sinusoids lined with macrophages that lead to a central venous structure.
Damage to which of the following nerves would reduce GI secretions?
C. vagus nerve
When we ingest large, complex molecules such as lipids, carbohydrates and proteins, they must undergo catabolic reactions, whereby enzymes split these molecules into building block levels. This series of reactions is called:
D. Chemical Digestion
In the triad region, the branches of the hepatic portal vein and hepatic artery join to form what enlarged capillaries?
Which tunic of the GI tract is very vascular and has many nerves and glands?