Unit 3 More Focused

  1. What are the functions of carbohydrates?
    • Primary energy source
    • Fibre and starch are energy storage in plants
  2. What are the functions of lipids?
    • Primary energy storage in animals
    • Aid in vitamin absorption
    • Insulation
    • Component of cell membrane
    • Making some other chemicals
  3. Subunits of lipids
    Glycerol and fatty acids
  4. Examples of lipids
    • Triglycerides
    • Unsaturated fatty acids
    • Saturated fatty acids
  5. Digestion of lipids starts:
  6. What enzyme digests lipids?
    • Lipase breaks apart triglycerides
    • Bile salts break down large fat globules
  7. Enzymes digesting protein
    • Pepsin (stomach)
    • Trypsin (small intestine)
    • Peptidases (S.I.) breaks down polypeptides into amino acids
  8. Define functional group
    Clusters of atoms that give compounds specific characteristics
  9. Describe stomach
    • Digestion
    • Sphincter muscles
    • Expands to 1.5L
    • Muscular conctrations churn food
    • Mucus lining
    • HCl breaks down food and kills invaders
    • Acidic
    • Some digestion
    • Some absorption
  10. Describe small intestine
    • Digestion and absorption
    • Most chemical digestion in duodenum
    • Secretions from gallbladder and pancreas help chemical digestion
  11. What do villi do?
    • Inside each villi is a network of capillaries and lymph vessels
    • Monosaccharides and amino acids into capillaries
    • Glycerol and fatty acids into lymph vessels
  12. Describe liver
    • Accessory organ
    • Produces bile and bile salts
    • Stores glucose as glycogen
    • Stores vitamins
    • Detoxifies harmful substances
    • Breaks down hemoglobin
  13. Describe gallbladder
    • Accessory organ
    • Stores bile from liver
    • Regulates release of bile into small intestine
  14. Describe pancreas
    • Accessory organ
    • Releases chemicals to raise pH of small intestine to a weak base
    • Secretes enzymes for chemical digestion
  15. Describe large intestine
    • Also called colon
    • Absorption and egestion
    • Absorb water and some minerals
    • Feces composed of undigested cellulose, living and dead bacteria and water
    • Receptors signal central nervous system when it is time to void wastes
  16. What does insulin do?
    Lowers blood sugar after a meal
  17. What does glucagon do?
    Raises blood sugar after exercise
  18. Describe heartburn
    • Burning feeling in lower chest
    • Sour or bitter taste in throat or mouth
    • Often occurs after a big meal
    • Stomach acid irritates the esophagus
  19. Describe gallstones
    • Hardening of cholesterol, bile salts or bilirubin
    • Can block ducts that lead to the small intestine
    • Can cause inflammation, damage or infection
    • Noticed when eating fatty foods
  20. Describe pancreatitis
    • Inflammation of the pancreas
    • Caused by alcohol abuse, smoking, some medications and high levels of triglycerides
  21. Describe diabetes
    • Inability to produce or effectively use insulin
    • Symptoms include frequent urination, thirst, weight change, extreme fatigue
  22. Describe esophageal varices
    • Fragile, swollen veins at the base of esophagus
    • Caused by disease of the liver
  23. Describe hiata hernia
    • Weakness in the diaphragm allowing a portion of the stomach to protrude into the chest cavity
    • Common symptoms include acid reflux
  24. Examples of polysaccharides
    • Starch
    • Glycogen
    • Cellulose
    • Fibre
  25. What is starch?
    • Repeating chains of glucose
    • Main energy storage in plants
  26. What is glycogen?
    • Glucose storage in animals
    • Long chains of glucose
    • Humans store about one days' worth of energy as glycogen in the liver
  27. What is fibre?
    Undigested parts of fruits, vegetables, grains, nuts and legumes
  28. Examples of soluble fibre
    Undigeste parts of fruits, vegetables, grains, nuts and legumes
  29. Examples of insoluble fibre
    • Wheat and whole bran
    • Whole grain breads and cereals
    • Vegetables
    • Fruit skins
    • Nuts
  30. Where are unsaturated fatty acids found?
    In most animal fats
  31. Define cofactors
    • Things that help some enzymes function properly
    • May bind to active site or weakly with substrate
  32. Amylase
    • Mouth
    • Amylose ---> Maltose
  33. Pepsin
    • Stomach
    • Protein -----> Polypeptide
  34. Trypsin
    • Pancreas
    • Protein -----> Polypeptide
  35. Peptidases
    • Small intestine
    • Polypeptide -----> Amino acid
  36. Lipase
    • Pancreas
    • Triglycerides -----> Glycerol and fatty acids
  37. Maltase
    • Small intestine
    • Maltose -----> Glucose
Card Set
Unit 3 More Focused
More focused review for unit 3