Biology 1010

  1. What are Cells:
    Basic Units of Life
  2. What is the Cell Theory?
    • 1. A cell is the basic unit of life.
    • 2. All living things are made up of cells
    • 3. New cells arise only from preexisting Cells
  3. 4.2b Surface aarea to volume relationships
    Image Upload 2
  4. What is Surface-area to-volume ratio?
    • Requires cells to stay small.
    • 1. A cell needs a surface area large enough to allow sufficient nutrients to enter and to rid itself of wastes.
    • 2.Actively metabolizing ceslls need to be smal.
    • A chicken egg is large but is not actively metabolizing.
    • 3. Cells that specialize in absorption have modifiations to increase the surface-area to volume ratio.
  5. Compound light Microscope
    • Multiple leses increase magnifying power
    • 1. a condenser lens focuses light through specimen.
    • 2. an objective lense magnifies the specimens image
    • 3. An ocular lens magnifies the image into the eye.
  6. Electron microscope
    More magnifying power than light.
  7. Transmission electron Microscope
    Passes electrons through Specimen.
  8. Comparison of three microspes. Image Upload 4
    Comparison of three microscopes
  9. Prokaryotic Cells
    • Lack of membrane-bound nucleus
    • Smaller than eukaryotic cells
    • 2 Domains.
  10. Domain and Domain archaea
    • DNA evidence
    • Biochemical differences.
  11. Eukaryotic Cells are much larger than prokaryotic cells.
    Image Upload 6
  12. Prokaryotic cell structure
    • Lack a membrane-bound nucleus
    • full of cytoplasm bound by plasma membrane
    • Ribosomes for protein synthesis
    • Long looped chromosome found in NUCLEOID
    • Reproduce by splitting in two
  13. Prokaryotic Cell Structure
    • Cyanobacteria can photsynthesize
    • cell wall outside plasma membrane
    • May have PILL (attachment) or FLAGELLA (movement)
  14. Prokayarotic cell structureImage Upload 8
  15. Eurkaryotic Cells
    • Domain Eukarya
    • Divide into protists,plants fungi and animals.
  16. Eukaryotic Cells
    Domaine Eukarya
    Divided into protists, plants, fungi and animals.
  17. Compartmentalized into ?
    Organells: perform specific functions.
  18. Cytoplasm
    Bounded by plasma.
  19. Eukaryotic
    • Cells are rich in membrane.
    • Most organells are membranouse
    • Anmail VS. Plants Cells.
  20. Anmail Cell
    Image Upload 10
  21. Plant Cell
    Image Upload 12
  22. Animal plant table
    • TABLE 4.4
    • Animal and Plant Cell Differences
    • Structure Animal Cell Plant Cell
    • Cell wall No Yes
    • Chloroplast No YES
    • Lysosomes YES NO
    • Centrioles YES NO
    • Large central vacuole No YES
    • Shap Round Rectangular
  23. Protein Synthesis:
    Is a Major Function of Cells
  24. Nucleus Contains?
  25. What is Chromatin?
    Net work of strans that condenses to form chromosomes.
  26. Nucleolus
    Dark region of Chromatin where ribosomal RNA (rRna)subunits made Nuclear envelop.
  27. Nuclear envelope:
    • Sepeartes the nucleus from cytoplasm
    • Double membrane
    • Nuclear pores to permit passage of ribsomal sub units.
  28. Ribosomes
    • Non-membrane-bound particles where protein synthesis occurs.
    • Found in both prokaryotes and sukaryotes
    • Made of 2 sub units
  29. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
    Some float free in cytoplasm others attached to (ER).
  30. Messenger mRNA (mRNA)
    Is a copy of a gene that tells a cell how to make the particular polypeptide of protien at a ribosome.
  31. Physically continous with the outer membrane of the nuclear envelope?
    • Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
    • Consists of membranous tubles and flattened sacs.
  32. Rough Er (RER)
    • studded with ribosomes
    • Proteins modiefied inside
  33. Smooth ER(SER)
    • no attach ribosomes
    • Lipeds synthesis, detofication
Card Set
Biology 1010
Chapter 4 1010