patho hematogolic

  1. What is the function of a red blood cell
    • Transport oxygen and co2 out of the body
    • no neucleus
  2. what is the lifespan of a red blood cell
    120 Days
  3. what is erythropoeisis
    manufacturing of red blood cells
  4. what cells in the kidney detect oxygen content
    Peritubular cells
  5. what are young red blood cells known as
  6. what is the normal reticulocyte of the blood
    1% if higher it indicates decreased oxygen. we can see this when a person is at high altitude they have more reticulosites in blood.
  7. what is heme
    recycled iron.
  8. what is the bulk of heme unit converted to?
  9. how is billirubin transported in the body
    it has to be conjugated to be transported. conjugation makes it water soluble.
  10. how long does it take for reticulocyte ot mature
    24-48 hours
  11. what happens as red blood cells age
    metabolic activity in the cell decreases, enzyme activity declines and ATP decreases and the cell becomes fragile. normally rbc production is equal to the rate of destruction
  12. where are phagocytic cells for the destruction of RBC's found
    • Spleen
    • liver
    • bone marrow
    • lymph nodes
  13. how is billibrubin removed
    bilirubin is removed from the blood by the liver and conjugated to make it water soluble.
  14. why is a CBG done
    look for leukocytes, hematocrit level
  15. What are immature neutrophils called
  16. what is the normal rate of RBC production
    it equals that produced
  17. Why do we do CBC
    • Look at white blood cell counts
    • Hematocrit level (fluid overload will lower hematocrit level)
    • -toget hematocrit multiply hemoglobin by 3.
    • H and H = hematocrit/hemoglobin
    • Red blood cell count
  18. electrolyte count is on what type of panal
    complete metabolic
  19. how is billirubin transported in plasma
    by attaching to plasma protein
  20. what removes hemoglobin from the blood
    liver and conjugated so it is water soluble
  21. components of CBC
    • Red blood cell count
    • White blood cell count
    • Hemoglobin
    • Hematocrit
    • MCHC
    • MCV
  22. what are MCV and MCHC used for
    to classify anemias
  23. MCV
    • mean corpustular volume calculated based on hematocrit and red blood. # of red blood cell in hematocrit= looking at the size of red blood cell.
    • is it microcytic/mtacrocytic/normacytic
  24. MCHC
    • mean corpustular hemoglobin content
    • looking at hemoglobin content of red blood cell. used for knowing anemias-ie anemias cells hypocromic or hypercromic
    • MCV and MHC help classify anemias
  25. RDW
    Red cell distribution width- looking at how similar cells are in size if this number is up it tells us we have lots of different cell sizes
  26. if you have lower platelet values what does it mean
  27. Low white cell count what is it called
  28. how is a CBC done manual /automatic
    mainly automatic but can be done manually
  29. CBC with a dif means
    diff applies to white blood cells. a manual differential counting of white blood cells.
  30. when would we do manual differential
    when there is something serious going on
  31. What is a left shift
    Going from mature cells to babies with white cells.
  32. if CBC you will get break down
  33. white blood cell diferrential
    PLMEB percentage from least to most of the white blood cells
  34. Elevated white blood cell count and you see an elevated neutrophils and elevated band counts
    recruiting help from the high school. the more immature cells we see we are going to the left.
  35. left shift means
    means an acute infection
  36. Blood loss anemia
    can be internal or external. can reach 50% before signs and symptoms show up
  37. why are the effects of blood loss anemia seen
    due to loss of intravascular volume
  38. how long does it take to return to normal after blood loss
    3-4 weeks
  39. Chronic blood loss how does it affect the body
    does not effect blood volume but instead leads to iron deficiency anemeia when iron stores are depleted
  40. cutting arm off what is that
    External - isotonic loss
  41. CHronic blood loss
    slow overtime, body has time to compensate. no change in volume. you will have symptoms after iron stores are depleted
  42. when to we see chronic blood loss
    Gi bleeding, peptic ulcer.
  43. Hemolytic anemia
    Premature destructrutction of red blood cell, retention of iron and products of hemoglobin, increase in blood production because of that. potentially lead to jaundice.
  44. Sickle cell disease
    Caused by malshaped cells
  45. Consequence of sickle cell disease
    red blood cell lysing leading to blood oclusion
  46. what factors trigger sickeling of cell
    cold, stress, infection, physical exertion, illness that cause hypoxia, dehydration, acidosis,
  47. is there a cure for sickle cell
    no only management
  48. sickle cell
    inherited disorder leads to chronic hemolytic anemia, pain and organ failure
  49. two consequence of sickle cell sicklin
    chromic hemolytic anemia and blood vessel occlusion
  50. Thalassemias
    • a group of inherited disorders of hemoglobin synthesis leading to decreased synthesis of alpha or beta globin chains.
    • - you see hypochromic microcytic anemia and hemolysis occurs
    • - meaning microcytic - affected in MCV
    • -Hypochromic low hemoglobin and MCHC light color
    • - transfuse patient - hemoglobin need to be in 9/10
  51. Iron deficiency anemia
    • Dietary dificiency, loss of iron through bleeding or increased demand
    • -can be dietary / blood loss
    • -will see low H and H and reduced MCHC and MCV
    • -microcytic and hypochromic
  52. Ferittin level
    is indicative of Fe stores.
  53. Megaloblastic anemias
    • Vitamin B12 dificiency or folic acid dificiency
    • -need extrensic factors to met B12
    • -
  54. hypochromic
    low hemoglovin reflected in hemoglobin and MCHC
  55. Microcytic
    reflective of cell size
  56. what is the MCV and MCHC for iron dificiency anemia
    Hypocromic Microcytic
  57. what symptoms will you see with H and H
    tachycardia, murmur because blood viscosity changes, pale,
  58. Megaloblastic anemias
  59. Results from impaired DNA synthesis and causes enlarged RBC's.
    develops slowly
  60. what causes megaloblastic anemias
    vitamin B!2 deficiency and folic acid which is needed fof DNA synthesis
  61. Pernicious anemias
    resuls from lack of intrinsic factors due to atrophic gastritis so you cannot metabolize B12
  62. causes of B12 difficiency
    Gastrectomy, ileal resection, inflammation or neoplasms in the ileum, and malabsorption syndromes
  63. what type of RBc do you see with megaloblastic anemia
    • Large oval and flimsy menbrane
    • MCV is elevated and MCHC is normal
  64. Aplastic anemia
    Low RBC, neutropenic, Thrombocyclpenia. Can be fatal so you have lower everything
  65. aplastic anemia s/sx
    • echymossis - bruising, weakness, fatigue, pallor
    • petechiae, bleeding
  66. what causes aplastic aneia
    exposure to radiation chemicals, chemotherapy, infection
  67. people with kidney failure have aplastic anemia
    because they are not able to produce erythropoeitin. hemodialysis
  68. anemia of chronic disease
    a complication of infection, inflammation, cancer,
  69. what is anemia of chronic disease in terms of MCV and MCHC
    normacytic and normochromic with low reticulocyte counts.
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patho hematogolic