1. pathway for control of eye movement
    • superior colliculus: inputs in voluntary control saccades (REMs to salient stimuli) and in coordinating movements of head in concert with this
    • -pretectal nuclei participate in pupillary reflexes
  2. retina and optic nerve are part of what?
    the CNS
  3. optic disk
    "blind spot" - where aonx exits and blood vessels pass
  4. macula
    area of highest visual acuity
  5. fovea
    centre of macula
  6. retinala structure; outer layer.
    • photoreceptors -rods (night vision)
    • and cones (for daylight and colour, densest just around fovea)
  7. retinal structure; middle layer
    bipolar neurons; horizontal (more superficial) and amacrine (deeper). both perform laternal interactions, which enhance visual contrast
  8. retinal structure; inner layer.
    ganglion cells. light goes thru to outermost layer, hits photoreceptor cells
  9. cone bipolar cells:
    input from small # of cones for high visual acuity
  10. rod bipolar cells:
    input from several rods for convergence and increased sensitivity at low illumination
  11. at outermost extreme:
    • pigmented epithelium- phagocytic role for removing old photoreceptors
    • functions is absent in retinosa pigmentosum, which can detach retina
  12. Neural processing
    • bipolar neurons and ganglions cells process signal
    • -in fovea, 1 cone -> 1 bipolar cell --> 1 ganglion cell
  13. neural processing; fovea have ...
    highest acuity
  14. neural processing, at periphery
    • many rods --> 1 bipolar cell
    • which acuity is decreased
  15. neural processing, other cells
    other cells in retina participate in signal processing
  16. ganglion cell axons gather together ...
    and exit at optic disk, become myelinated and form optic nerve
  17. optic nerves from both eyes converge at...
    optic chiasm: partial cross-over
  18. images in nasal hemiretina
    from both sides cross ovver (temporal stay ipsilateral); allows for complete cross-over of each visual field
  19. Right visual field maps on...
    L visual cortex
  20. some optic tracts axons
    • do not go LGN of thalamus, but travel to brachium of superior colliculus
    • -
  21. what layer recives direct input from retina?
    • 1st layer;
    • other layers receive input from 1st or from somatic sensory (AL system) and auditory systems
    • -sensory info fr. differ modlities is lined up in differ layers -->output to eye and neck muscles so that one can properly orient to stimulus
  22. Lateral Geniculate Nucleus is a?
    • a nucleus in thalamus, which projects to the primary visual cortex and serves visual perception
    • -laminated (6 layers) with alternating input from ipslateral and contralateral retina
  23. division between 2 important input systems:
    • Magnocellular & Parvolcellular
    • -project to distinct parts of primary visual cortex
  24. Magnocellular inputs from...
    from M ganglion cells wwith wide dendritic arbours (integrates visual input info from wide area for motion vision)
  25. Parvocellular input from...
    • from P cells (ganglionic cells with small dendritic arbours)
    • -for discriminative aspects of visual form and colour
  26. Meyer's Loop
    course anterior for a short distance in order to mvoe over the lateral ventricles
  27. Brodman's Area 17
    primary cortex, in columnar fissure
  28. Layer 4 (Stripe of Gennari)
    densest projection to primary visual cortex (like other sensory)
  29. Image Upload 2
    Image Upload 4
  30. in visual system, 3 types of aggregates.
    • ocular dominance columns, orientation columns, aggregates of colour-sensitive neurons (colour blobs)
    • -neurons lined up with similar properties across diff layers
  31. Why are higher-order areas surround area 17 (area 18 and 19) are distinguishable?
    lacking of Stripe Gennari
  32. Motion pathway.
    Magnocellular system to the primary cortex to higher order areas for visual form in mtoion (includes medial temporal projection)
  33. Colour pathway
    parvocellular system to primary cortical projections in 4CB to colour blobs to higher order areas
  34. form visual pathway
    parvocellular system to 4CB to region between blobs to higher order cortex and inferior temporal lobe
  35. Two streams of projections outside visual system:
    • ventral: features :what
    • dorsal: spatial info: 'where"
  36. deficits in the optic nerve
    transection = monocular blindness
  37. deficits in optic chiasm
    • (eg. pituitary tumor)
    • -transection --bitemporal visual field deficit
  38. deficits in optic tract or LGN
    transection: contrlateral visual field deficits (homonynous hemianopsis
  39. deficits at optic radiations
    • transection of meyer's loop only (temporal region --contralateral upper quadrant (quandranotopia
    • complete transection --homonymous hemianopsia
  40. deficit in primary visual cortex
    • most common
    • infarction - homonymous hemianopia with macular sparing (secondary greater cortical representation)
Card Set
lection 5