1. /bin
    Essential command binaries Holds the files needed to bring the system up and run it when it first comes up in single-user mode. Holds system utilities
  2. /boot
    Static files of the boot loader Contains all of the files needed to boot the system.
  3. /dev
    Device files
  4. /etc
    Machine–local system configuration files One of the most important is /etc/passwd
  5. /etc/X11
    Machine–local configuration files for the X Window System
  6. /home
    User home directories
  7. /lib
    Shared Libraries
  8. /lib/modules
    Loadable kernel modules
  9. /mnt
    Mount point for temporarily mounting filesystems
  10. /opt
    Add-on software packages. (optional)
  11. /proc
    Kernel and process information virtual filesystem
  12. /root
    home directory for root
  13. /sbin
    Essential system binaries Utilities used for system administration are stored in /sbin and /usr/sbin.
  14. /sbin *also
    /sbin directory includes utilities needed during the booting process
  15. /usr/sbin
    holds utilities used after the system is up and running
  16. Older versions of linux
    In older versions of Linux, many system administration utilities were scattered through several directories that often included other system files (/etc, /usr/bin, /usr/adm, /usr/include).
  17. /sys
    Device pseudofilesystem
  18. /tmp
    temporary files
  19. /usr
    Second major hierarchy. Traditionally includes subdirectories that contain information used by the system. Files in /usr subdirectories do not change often and may be shared by several systems.
  20. /usr/bin
    Most user commands. Contains the standard linux utility programs. that is binaries that are not needed in single-user mode.
  21. /usr/lib
  22. /usr/local
    Local hierarch Holds locally important files and directories that are added to the system. can include bin, games, include, lib, sbin, share, and src
  23. /var
    Variable data, files with contents that vary are stored here
  24. /var/log
    Log files Contains lastlog (a record of the last login by each user), messages (system messages from rsyslogd), and wtmp (a record of all logins/logouts).
  25. cd
    Associates you with another working directory
  26. chmod
    Changes the access permissions on a file
  27. getfacl
    Displays a files ACL
  28. ln
    Makes a link to an existing file
  29. mkdir
    Creates a directory
  30. pwd
    displays the pathname of the working directory.
  31. rmdir
    Deletes a directory.
  32. setfacl
    Modifies a files ACL
  33. ACL
    Access control lists.
  34. ACL's allow you
    share selected files with other users.
  35. Maximum file name
    255 characters
  36. Should you use spaces in filenames.
  37. stat
    Displays information about a file or filesystem.
  38. T or F Linux is case sensitive
  39. T or F file name extensions are mandatory
    False they are not neccesary
  40. Absolute pathname
    You can build the absolute pathname of a file by tracing a path from the root directory through all the intermediate directories to the file
  41. relative pathname
    traces a path from the working directory to a file
  42. The "."
    is synonymous with the pathname of the working directory and can be used in its place
  43. The ".."
    is synonymous with the pathname of the parent of the working directory.
  44. rmdir -r
    deletes directory and files inside.
  45. touch
    creates an empty file
  46. ls -l
    displays file permissions
  47. chmod a
    all users
  48. chmod u
    user/owner of the file
  49. chmod g
  50. chmod 0
  51. Link
    is a pointer to a file
  52. ln
    creates a hard link
  53. rm
    removes a link
  54. R W X
    Read write execute
  55. ls -l
    Long Listing
  56. ls -i
  57. ls -a
    show hidden files
  58. ls -A
    show hidden files, wont show .. parent or .
  59. ls -h
    human readable
  60. ls -F
    shows a / if directory
  61. ls -t
  62. ls -r
  63. ls -R
  64. ls -s
    sort by size
  65. mount
    mount a filesystem
  66. umount
    unmount a filesystem
  67. df
    show amount of disk space free
  68. du
    show amount of disk space used
  69. stat
    display file or filesystem status
  70. file
    determines filetype
  71. info
    read info documents
  72. fsck
    check and repair a linux filesystem.
  73. mkfs
    build a linux filesystem
  74. tune2fs
    adjust tuneable filesystem parameters.
  75. /etc/opt
    Configuration files for add on software packages
  76. /usr/include
    header files included by C programs
  77. /var/spool
    spooled application data.
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