1. What forms the blood brain barrier?
  2. Cerebrum - brain functions?
    • conscious thought processes, intellectual functions
    • -memory storage and processing
    • -conscious and subconscious regulation of skeletal muscle contractions
  3. cerebellum - functions
    • coordinates complex somatic motor patterns
    • -adjusts output of other somatic motor centers in brain and spinal cord
  4. pons - functions
    • relays sensory info to cere bellum and thalamus
    • -subconscious somatic and visceral motor centers
  5. medulla oblongata functions
    • -relays sensory info to thalamus and to other portions of the brain stem
    • -autonomic centers for regulation of visceral function (cardiovascular, respiratory, and digestive system activities)
  6. mesencephalon functions
    • processing of visual and auditory data
    • -generation of reflexive somatic motor responses
    • -maintenance of consciousness
  7. hypothalamus functions
    centers controlling emtions, autonomic functions, and hormone production
  8. thalamus functions
    relay and processing centers for sensory info
  9. 7 major divisions of CNS
    • 1. cerebral hemisphere
    • 2. diencephalon
    • 3. Midbrain
    • 4. Pons
    • 5. Cerebellum
    • 6. Medulla
    • 7. Spinal cord
  10. Spinal cord
    • -flow of info from PNS to CNS
    • -direct body movement
    • -processes sensory info from limbs, trunk, and internal organs
    • 0segmental organization and pair of nerve roots
  11. Brainstem =
    medulla + pons + midbrain
  12. spinal cord
    • head (sensory, motor control)
    • -use of cranial verves in place of spinal nerves
    • -transmission of info between brain and SC
    • -regulation of arousal and viscceral functions (bp & respiration)
  13. Cerebellum
    regulation of movement, maintenance of posture and balance; works closesly in concert with pons
  14. thalamus is the key...
    ..for transmitting info to cerebral hemispheres
  15. Hypothalamus ...
    • integrates functions of the ANS
    • -controls endocrine hormone release from pit
  16. cerebral cortex convoluted to accommodate large surface area. ..
    gyri, sulci, fissues, and 4 lobes
  17. Frontal lobe.
    • -motor behavior
    • -primary cortex at precentral gyrus: nearby premotor areas, prefrontal assocaiton cortex, cingulate gyrus (import. for reasoning and emotional)
  18. Parietal lobe.
    • sensory areas.
    • Primary cortex at postcentral gyrus
    • -superior parietal lobule (spatial perception, self-image
    • -inferior parietal lobule (integrating sensory info for speech and perception)
  19. Occipital lobe
    • primary cortex within calcarine fissure on medial surface
    • -surrounding association cortex elaborates the sensory message so that can see and integrate forms and colours
    • -important for recognizing faces
  20. Temporal lobe
    • sensory funccitons +memory and emotions
    • -primary auditory cortex: on superior temporal gyrus - speech centre
    • -integrate with nearby areas: inferior temporal gyrus: perception of visual forms and colours
    • -works with nearby occipital
    • -temporal pole + medial temporal areas: mediate emotions along with nearby frontal cortical areas
  21. Hippocampus important in ...
    learning and memory
  22. Amygdala...
    emotional control and coordination of rage
  23. whats the limbic system?
    hippocampus and amygdala; important implications for psychiatry
  24. Basal Ganglia
    imorant in control of movement, emotion and cognition
  25. CSF formation in CNS
    • CSF surrounds and fills tubular CNS
    • -serves as cushion and shock absorber
    • -serves as medium for chemical communication
    • -general structures serve as important landmarks for nearby structures: (lateral ventricles, 3rd ventricles, 4th ventricle)
  26. function of dura mater and what folds?
    • -falx cerebri, tentorium cerebelli, falx cerebelli
  27. Cranial Meninges of CNS.
    -dura, arachnoid, pia

    • -protective, circulating function (contain bloodvessels) - veings and arteries in subarachnoid space
    • -dural sinuses - major venous areas carrying blood away from brain
  28. CSF
    cushions delicate neural structures, supports brain, transports nutrients, chemical messengers, and waste products
  29. pathway of CSF
    • -produced at choroid plexus
    • -travels thru lateral and medial apertures to subarachnoid space,
    • -diffuses across the arachnoid granulations itno the superior sagittal sinus
  30. BBB
    isolates neural tissue from general circulation
  31. medulla oblongata
    • connects brain with spinal cord
    • -contains relay stations and reflex centers (olivary nuclei and cardiovascular and repiratory ryhythmicity centers)
    • -reticular formation beingsi n medulla oblongata and extends into more superior portions of the brainstem
  32. Pons.
    • -sensory and motor nuclei for four cranial verves
    • -nuclei that help control respiration
    • -nuclei and tracts linking cerebellum with the brain stem, cerebrum and spinal cord
    • -ascending, descending, and transverse tracts
  33. reticular formation
    analogous to intermediate zone; plays key role in sensory motor integration; regulates arousal
  34. Cerebellum
    • adjusts postural muscles and tunes on-going movements
    • -cerebellar hemispheres: anterior and posterior lobes, vermis, flocculonodular lobe
    • -superior,m iddle and inferior cerebellar peduncles link cerebellum with brain stem, diencephalon, cerebrum, and spinal cord
    • -interconnects the two cerebellar hemispheres
  35. Mesencephalon contains...
    • corpora quadrigemina (superior and inferior colliculi)
    • -contains many nuclei: red nucleus, substantia nigra, cerebral peduncles, RAS headquarters
  36. Diencephalon composes of
    epithalamus, hypothalamus, thalamus
  37. Thalamus ...in terms of sensory info
    final relay point for ascending sensory info
  38. Thalamus coordinates...
    the activities of cerebral cortex
  39. thalamus is part of...
    • diencephalon - relay nuclei thru which sensory and motor info pass to and from cortex
    • EG. from sc to primary sensory cortex; from primary motor cortex to sc
  40. Thalamus - projecting nuclei
    • diffuse; function in arousal and regulates various functions of cerebral cortex
    • -final relay point for ascending sensory info
    • -coordinates activities of cerebral cortex and basal nuclei
  41. internal capsule
    white matter underling cortex; path of transmission of info immediate to and from cortex
  42. Hypothalamus.
    • controls somatic motor activities at the subconscious lvl
    • -controls autonomic function,
    • -coordinates activities of endocrine and nervous systems
    • -secretes hormones
    • -produces emotions and behavioral drives
    • -coordinates voluntary and autonomic functions
    • -regulates body temp
    • -coordinates circadian cycles of activity
  43. most cortical regions in humans are
    advanced forms (neocortex, isocortex)
  44. allocortex - 2 types
    • Palocortex
    • archicortex
  45. paleocortex is
    sense of smell, emotions (olfbulb)
  46. Archicortex
    memories (hipp, 3 layers)
  47. Broadmann's Areas
    thickness of each 6 layers varies between areas, whcih are also distinct functionally
  48. areas that subserve sensation have which layer?
    • layer IV
    • -primary motor areas have thick layer V
  49. White matter of the cerebrum
    contains association fibers, commissural fibers, projection fibers,
  50. Basal nuclei
    • caudate nucleus
    • -globus pallidus
    • -putamen:
  51. putamen:
    control muscle tone and coordinate learned movement patterns
  52. primary motor cortex of the precentral gyrus directs...
    voluntary movements
  53. primary sensory cortex of hte postcentral gyrus receives...
    • somatic sensory info
    • -touch, pressure, pain, taste, temp
  54. association areas...
    • control ability to undersatnd sensory info and coordinate a response
    • -somatic sensory asso. area
    • -visual asso area
    • -somatic motor assoc. area
  55. general interpretive area
    • receives info from all sensory areas
    • -present only in L hemisphere
  56. speech center
    regulates patterns of breathing and vocalization
  57. prefrontal cortex
    • coordinates info form secondar and special asso. areas
    • -performs abstract intellectual functions
  58. hemispheric differences
    L hemisphere typically contains general interpretive and speech centers and is reponsible for language based skills

    R hemisphere: responsible for spatial relationships and analyses
  59. cranial nerves
    • 12 pairs
    • -each attaches to ventrolateral surface of brainstem near assoc. sensory or motor nuclei
  60. Limbic system (motivational system) includes
    • amygdaloid body
    • -cingulated gyrus
    • -parahippocampal gyrus
    • -hippocampus
    • -fornix
    • -functions: involve emotions and behavioral drives
Card Set
lecture 1