_____________ _________________ is a simple routine matter for which a manager has an established decision rule. The manager performs the decision activity on a daily basis.
____ _____________ ______________ are new complex decisions that require a creative solution. The decision is unique and unstructured and requires considerable judgment.
Non Programmed Decisions
_____________is a major part of input for non programmed decisions.
Identification of the ____ ___________ is important-otherwise the manager may be reacting to symptoms.
What is the first step of the decision making process?
Define the problem
_______________ is the term used for selecting the “best” alternative.
_______________is the term used for selecting the alternative that minimally meets the decision criteria.
Step seven of the decision making process is to _________ ___________. Once the decision is made ___________ concerning the outcomes is vital to determine success or missed opportunity.
Gather feedback; feedback
Step eight of the decision making process is to conduct __________ __. Decision making is not complete without some form of __________ __ and appraisal of actions taken.
With regard to effective decision making, a _______ decision that meets a _________ ___________ and is ___________ to those individuals affected by it.
Timely, desired objective, acceptable
In the rational model of decision making, the outcome will be completely rational and the decision maker is aware of ____ the possible alternatives.
True or False – In the rational model of decision making, the decision make can calculate the probability of success for each alternative.
In the rational model the decision maker strives to _______________, which is to select the best possible alternative.
Given the assumptions of the rational model, it is ____________ because there are time constraints and limits to knowledge and information processing capabilities.
Which theory, founded by Simon, is the most realistic in portraying the managerial decision process?
Bounded Rationality Theory
One assumption in the bounded rationality theory is that managers are comfortable making decisions without determining all of the _________.
True or False – One assumption in the bounded rationality theory is that managers make decisions by rules of thumb (gut decisions) or heuristics.
Bounded Rationality ______________ portrays the management decision process.
Who is more averse to risk taking, men or women?
____________ __ _______________ is the tendency to continue to support a failing course of action.
Escalation of commitment
1. All of the following are methods of dealing with the escalation of commitment except:
a. Split responsibility for decisions
b. Provide a graceful exit for individuals so their image is not tarnished
c. Have groups rather than individuals make the initial investment decision
d. Assigning the responsibility of failure to the person with lowest seniority
d. Assigning the responsibility of failure to the person with lowest seniority
1. The Z-Model of decision making is composed of 4 steps. They are:
1. Examine the facts and details (Sensing)
2. Generate alternatives (Intuition)
3. Analyze the alternatives objectively (Thinking)4. ______ ___ ________ (Feeling)
Weigh the impact
_____________ _______ is an individual’s preference for gathering information and evaluating alternatives. (Carl Jung)
The ______side of your brain is the center for logic, detail and planning.
The _______ side of your brain is the center for creative functions.
There are ways to develop your brain. The _____ ________________, is developed by setting goals for completing tasks, and work to attain these goals while the _____ ____________, developed by asking “what if” questions and follow through with your intuition. The Ideal is Brain Lateralized.
Left hemisphere; right hemisphere
For a person that strategically crafts a vision plan, would that person be viewed as right brain or left brain dominant?
1. Which of the following is not a factor in using intuition in the decision making process?
a. Speed of the decision
b. It is a programmed decision
c. The positive force used is below the level of consciousness
d. Involves learned patterns of behavior
b. It is a programmed decision – intuition is a major part of a non-programmed decision.
The apparent positive force relating to intuition is that decision making is ________.
Mintzberg’s research found that ___________ do not appear to use a step by step approach to decision making.
Name the four stages of the creative process.
______________ is a process of reflective thought and is often conducted subconsciously. SLEEP ON IT.
______________ occurs when you sense a resolution to the problem “a light bulb goes on”.
People with a “Positive Mental Attitude” were _____ ___________ for creative problem solving.
______________ _____________can either support creativity or impede efforts. Creative organizations include supportive relationships with supervisors - flexible workplace and participative decision making.
Managers of the future need to develop ______________ in the ability to promote creativity in organizations.
Name the four types of creativity.
True or False – A common assumption is that you either have creativity or you don’t – creativity cannot be learned.
False – this is a mistaken assumption – creativity can be learned.
A participative, supportive culture, is essential because of the uncertainty that empowerment can cause within the organization. Team oriented work design lead to broader task and responsibility. These concepts are the organizational foundation of ___________ _____________ _______.
Participative decision making
Name the three individual pre-requisites of participative decision making.
Capability to become psychologically involved in participative activities
Ability to see personal benefit
In group decision making, _______ __ ___________ is a positive force that occurs in groups when group members stimulate new solutions to problems through the process of mutual influence and encouragement within the group.
Role of synergy
One social decision scheme is the majority wins rule- The group supports whatever position is taken by the majority of its members. Studies show that it is most often used in __________ _____ (that is when a decision is a matter of preference or opinion).
Another social decision scheme is the Truth Wins Rule, which predicts that the correct decision will emerge as an increasing number of members realize its appropriateness. Used best when the decision has a _________ ________.
What are the three disadvantages of group decision making.
Pressure to conform
Domination of the group by an individual or clique
____________________ is a deterioration of mental efficiency, reality testing and moral judgment resulting from pressure within the group.
_______ _________________is the tendency for group discussion to produce shifts toward more extreme attitudes among members.
When a decision must be made quickly, there is more potential for ______________.
A recent review of the decision situation in the Challenger incident identified which two variables as being important to the groupthink phenomena, what are they?
Leadership style and time constraints
_______ __ ____________ is defined as the majority view and judgments are assumed to be unanimous.
Illusion of Unanimity
True or False – A remedy for groupthink is; The leader should avoid stating preferences and expectations at the outset.
True or False – A remedy for groupthink is; Once a consensus is reached, encourage the group to rethink its position by reexamining the alternatives, welcome dissent.
Electronic ___________________ reduces apprehension and overcomes two common problems that can produce group brainstorm failure.
With regard to electronic brainstorming, the two considerations are ___________ _____________ which occurs when listening to others, individuals are distracted from their own ideas the other is___________ ______________ which is the fear that others might respond negatively to their ideas.
Production blocking; evaluation apprehension
According to the Nominal Group Technique, a structured approach to group decision making that focuses on generating alternatives and choosing one. What are the four components of this technique?
Silently list ideas
Record on a chart
Discussion limited to clarify ideas only
Written vote is taken
____ ________ ___________ is valuable in its ability to generate a number of independent judgments without the requirement of a face to face meeting.
The Delphi Technique
An antidote for groupthink in self-managed teams is__________ ______.