_____ are used to make unobservabl abstract concepts, such as "friendliness" or "racism", specific and measurable.
C. Operational Definitions
Which of the following is a biological psychologist least likely to investigate?
B. effects of brain damage on behavior
As described in class, the research cycle involves three basic steps. Which of the following is not one of them?
Which early "school" of psychology encountered difficulties due to its use of the introspection of trained observers as an important source of data?
Which type of research can only be conducted in a laboratory?
D. none of the above
Researchers favoring the perspective known as Behaviorism frequently used non-human animals as subjects de in part to their belief that ____.
D. behavioral laws are essentially the same across different species
The main difference btween a correlational study and an experiment is that _____.
A. in an experiment (but not in a correlational study) the investigator manipulates an independent variable
As discussed in the text book, individuals who graduate with a bachelor's degree in psychology _____.
A. usually take jobs that are not closely related to psychology
Suppose that over a sample of days and individuals we measured the outside temperature and the number of pounds of clothing worn while outside. Suppose also that we used our data to calculate a correlation coefficient. If we found that as the outside temperature decreased, people wore more pounds of clothing, our correlation coefficient would be ________.
Which of the following porcedures would be most likely to reduce the effects of demand characteristics?
D. conceal the purpose of the research from the participants
If you ran a large corporation and you wanted a psychologist to help ensure that you hired people who were well-suited for the jobs you have, you would be best advised by ______ psychologist.
C. an industrial/ organizational
If every individual in a popoulation had an equal chance of being selected for a sample, the sample is said to be ______.
D. a random sample
A dependent variable is a variable that _______.
A. the researcher measures
As mentioned in the text book, a recent trend in psychology has been an increasing agreement that _____.
C. many psychological processes need to be studied in a wider variety of cultures
The mind-body problem (or mind-brain problem) refers to which of the following questions?
C. How is the mind related to the brain and does one control the other?
The tendency for researchers see waht they expected to see rather than accurately observing what is really happening, is called _____.
D. experimenter bias
Ryan cannot remember anything that happened today during his 8am history class. His friend Juanita suggests that perhaps Ryan fell asleep in class. Ryan, however, proposes that his brain was temporarily kidnapped by aliens from another planet. Most psychologists would prefer Juanita's explanation on several grounds, including that it is more _____.
Theories are frequently expressed in terms of abstract concepts (such as intelligence). In psychology, these abstract concepts are often referred to as ____.
An illusory correlation is ______.
C. an imagined or greatly exaggerated correlation
Resarch conducted by social psychologists is primarily focused on learning more about _____.
C. how behavior is influenced by other people
Which approach hto psychology often thought of minds as being similar to computers?
C. Cognitive Psychology
A testable prediciton of waht will happen under certain conditions is known as a _____.
Psychological science is best defined as the study of ______.
E. both A and B
The field of psychology known as ergonomics or human factors concentrates on _____.
C. designing machinery and instructions so people can understand them more easily and accurately
Suppose that researchers conducted a correlational study and found that happy people tend to be healthier than unhappy people. From this kind of information alone, which of the following is an appropriate conclusion to draw from the study?
D. none of the above are appropriate conclusions to draw from these results.
A survey team asks questions of a group of people who have been carefully selected to be sure taht they include the same percentages of male and female; old and young; and black, white, asian, and hispanic as the population as a whole. This group of people constitute a _____.
B. representative sample
A research randomly assigned participants to rooms in which the noise level was low, moderate, or high. While in their assigned rooms, participants were asked to solve a series of puzzles. the researcher measured the amount of time it took each participant to complete the puzzles. What was the independent variable in this experiment?
C. the loudness of the noise
If the difference between the average performance of participants in two different experimental gropus is "statistically significant" then _____.
C. the difference is one that would occur by chance alone only rarely
An anecdote is a _____.
A. report of an isolated event or occurrence
The value of the statistic known as a correlation coefficient ____.
A. always falls in the range from -1 to +1
Which of the followin (if it were true) would most seriously conflict with the assumptions of determinism?
C. some behaviors are completely spontaneous and occur without any cause of any sort what-so-ever.
________ psychology is the study of psychological disorders and their treatment.
Suppose that a psychologist predicts that an 8-week therapy program will be effective in reducing symptoms of depression. He evaluates 60 depressed people at the start of therapy and again at the end of the 8-week treatment program using a standard questionnaire fro measuring depression. At the end of the program, 80% of the participants show improvement compared to their condition prior to therapy. The psychologist concludes taht the therapy was effective. A serious flaw in this study is that it lacks _____.
B. a control group of depressed people recieving no therapy (or a different therapy) to whom this group of 60 can be compared
The term for research that is conducted in the location where the behavior normally occurs is _____.
A. field study
As explained in the textbook, how did Clever Hans, solve arithmetic problems?
A. by watching the examiner for subtle cues
James, who likes to play golf every Saturday, beliees that it rains more often on Saturdays than on weekdays. However, he is relying entirely on casuals impressions. He has never collected data systematically to test his hypothesis. His belief is most likely an example of _____.
D. an illusory correlation
The main advantage of an experimental study, in contrast to a correlational study, is that an experiment is _____.
D. can answer questions related to cause-and-effect
Wilhelm Wundt is known for _____.
D. establishing the first laboratory for psycholoical research
Supporters of the of free willdisagree most directly with the idea that _____.
C. all behaviors have causes that scientists can study
Which of the following claims would be the most difficult to falsify?
C. "Dreams are expressions of unconscious desires and use symbols to hide their true meaning from the conscious mind."
Saying that a research result is replicable means that ____.
D. researchers who repeat the procedure get similar results
As used in science, the word theory refers to ______.
D. an idea (often one that has been tested) that explains a set of facts
Which of the following clearly could not serve as a useful operational definition of "interest in sports"?
C. the enjoyment one gets from talking about sports
Dr. Jones randomly assigned people to two groups. Thosein the experimental gropu recieved an audio recording that they were told contained a "subliminal message that will improve the listener's self-esteem". As instructed, for three weeks, this group played the recording each night as they fell asleep. The other group recieved no treatment. After three weeks, Dr. Jones interviewed both groups and concluded that people in the experimental group showed higher self-esteem. What change would improve the procedure used in this research?
A. use a double-blind procedure
The nature-nurture issue (or nature versus nurture debate) is the question of how the development of behavior depends on _____.
B. heredity, the environment, or both
Random assignment ______.
A. is a means of deciding which participants will be in each treatment (or control) group
B. is a means of eliminating the need for any dependent variables
C. converts a correlational design into a descriptive design
D. allows the independent variable to be held constant for all groups
A. is a means of deciding which participants will be in each treatment (or control) group
With which psychological perspective is the phrase "The whole is greater than (or different from) the sum of its parts" most closely associated?
A. Gestalt Psychology
John noticed a patch of mushrooms growing in his yard and felt intensely curious about whether they were edible or posionous. Fortunately, his neighbor was a biologist who conducts research on toxic mushrooms, and John decided to ask her whether the mushrooms were safe to eat. John was using the ______ to acquire knowledge.
A. method of authority
Suppose that a study using a correlational design found a positive relationship between a) the number of times children got in trouble with the law (e.g., were caught shoplifting) and b) the number of hours their mothers worked outside the home. That is, children whose mothers worked more hours outside the home were more likely to get into trouble with the police. suppose also that the study included a large number of participants and that the results were "statistically significant". With no additional information, which of the following conclusions are appropriate to draw from the results of this research?
D. due the type of research design, neither A nor B is an appropriate conclusion.
Cognitivepsychology is similar to behaviorism in its ____.
C. reliance on laoratory experiments in which behavior is observed