1. Carbohydrates is a main source for what?
    the human body
  2. Carbohydrates provides the body with what?
    basic fuel
  3. Adenosine Triphosphate is what?
    the universal energy source for biological reactions
  4. What is the primary source of energy for the synthesis of ATP?
    Glucose oxidation by the glycolytic and tricarboxylic acid pathways
  5. What type of molecules bond carbon, hydrogen & oxygen together?
    Organic molecules
  6. Carbohydrates is made of how many carbon and molecules?
    6 carbon atoms, 6 elements of water molecules
  7. What is the chemical formula for carbohydrates?
  8. Cabohydrates contain what two groups?
    C=O (carbonyl) and -OH (hydroxyl)
  9. Classifications of Carbohydrates are based on what 4 properties?
    • -size of the base carbon chain
    • -location of the C=O
    • -stereochemistry of the compound
    • -number of sugar units
  10. The size of the base carbon chain shows what?
    • the number of carbons in the molecule
    • e.g. Triose-3carbons ; TTetrose-4 ; Pentose-5; Hexose-6 ex. fructose, galactose, glucose
  11. The location of the C=O function group have what two forms of carbohydrates?
    • Aldose-aldehyde as its functional group
    • Ketose-ketone as its functional group
  12. Stereochemistry is the study of what?
    the spatial arrangements of molecules
  13. Stereoisomers are compounds that have the same order and types of bonds, but different in what?
    spatial arrangements and different properties
  14. What is more representative of the actual structure?
    Haworthy Projection
  15. Fisher Projection is represented as what?
    as a straight chain or cyclis, hemacytometer form
  16. Stereoisomers central carbons are what?
  17. How many groups are attached to the carbon atoms in a stereoisomers?
    4 different groups
  18. True or False: stereoisomers mirror images and can overlap
  19. Optical activity has the ability to rotate what?
    plane polarized light
  20. For dextrorotatory, name 3 characteristics of it?
    • -rotate to right
    • -use + symbol
    • -usually D isomers
  21. For levorotatory, name 3 characteristics?
    • *rotate to the left
    • *use - symbol
    • *usually L isomers
  22. What are the 4 classification of number sugar units? 4 types of Carbohydrates
    • >Monosaccarides
    • >Disaccharides
    • >Oligosaccharides
    • >Polysaccharides
  23. Chaining of sugars relies on what type of formation?
    glycoside bonds that are bridges of oxygen atoms
  24. When 2 carbohydrate molecules join together what is produced?
    water molecule
  25. What happens when 2 cabohydrates split?
    one molecule of water is used to form individual compounds called Hydrolysis
  26. What is glycoside linkage?
    a bond between monosaccharides
  27. What are 3 characteristics of Monosaccharides?
    • -simples sugars
    • -contain 3-6 carbons
    • -sweet in taste
    • most common: glucose, fructose, galactose
  28. ___ is the only carbohydrates that can be absorbed into the bloodstream through the intestinal lining.
  29. What is the primary form of sugar stored in the human body for energy?
    Glucose "blood sugar"
  30. Galactose sugar is found where?
    milk and yogurt
  31. Fructose is found where?
  32. Glucose, galactose, and fructose share what?
    same molecular formula
  33. Which carb has 2-10 monosaccharides?
  34. Oligosaccharides have the most __ sugars?
  35. Disaccharides formed on what?
    • the interaction of goups between 2 monosaccharides w/ the production of water molecule
    • c12H22116=2 C6H12O6-H2O
  36. Disaccharides have_sugars
  37. What are some common disaccharides?
    sucrose, lactose, maltose
  38. What is the formula for sucrose?
    common table sugar=glucose + fructose
  39. What is the formula for lactose?
    major sugar in milk=glucose + galactose
  40. What is the formula for maltose?
    product of starch digestion=glucose + glucose
  41. Disaccharides easily converted to their monosaccharide bases by what?
    enzymes in the digestive tract
  42. Table sugar is most common sugar in what?
  43. Sugar cane and beet are up to how many % by mass sucrose?
  44. What is an enzyme that requires to hydrolyze lactose?
  45. What is lack of insufficient amount of the enzyme?
    Lactose intolerance
  46. What happens if lactose enters lower GI?
    it can cause gas and cramps
  47. Maltose is a product of what?
    starch digestion
  48. Where would you find maltose?
    • -ingredient in infant formulas
    • -production of beer
    • -flavoring-fresh baked aroma
  49. Polysaccharides have long chains of more than 10 monosaccharides that equal to what?
    polymers of the simple sugars
  50. Where are complex carbohydrates present in?
    In most grain products, vegetables and potatoes
  51. At what rate is polysaccharides digested at?
    slower rate
  52. What are two most common examples of polysaccharides?
    starch and glycogen
  53. What is a polymer of glucose?
  54. Starch is used by plants to store glucose for what?
    later use as energy
  55. What are some common sources of starch?
    rice, beans, wheat, corn, potatoes, ect
  56. What happens to starch when eaten?
    an enzyme that occurs in saliva and in the intestines break the bonds between the repeating glucose
  57. What is another polymer of glucose?
  58. Glycogen is used by animals to?
    store energy
  59. Excess glucose is bonded together to form what?
    glycogen molecules, which is stored in the liver and muscles tissues as an "instant" source of energy
  60. Glycogen stores excess of this?
  61. Reducing substances do what?
    oxidize or reduce substances
  62. This substances has loss of electrons
  63. This substance gains electrons
  64. Reducing substances must contain what groups?
    aldehyde or ketone group
  65. This is the sum of all the chemical reactions that occur in a cell
  66. What is anabolism?
    synthesis of all compounds needed by the cells
  67. What is catabolism?
    breakdown of all molecules to obtain energy
  68. What is an enzyme?
    is a protein molecule that functions as an organic catalyst to speed a chemical reaction w/out itself being affected by the reaction
  69. amylase, lactase, lipase are examples of what protein molecule?
  70. In this process most of ingested carbohydrates are polymers such as starch and glycogen?
    digestive process
  71. Digestive process is digestive by what?
    salivary amylase and pancreatic amylase=disaccharides
  72. Digestive process is further hydrolysed by what?
    maltase, an enzyme released by intestinal mucosa
  73. 2 important gut-derived enzymes that hydrolyze what?
    sucrase and lactase
  74. Monosaccharides are absorbed by what?
    the gut
  75. this is transported to the liver by hepatic portal venous blood supply.
  76. this is the only carbohydates to be directly used for energy or stored as glycogen
  77. What must be converted to glucose before use?
    fructose and galactose
  78. This is facilitated transport of glucose across the plasma membrane
    initial event in glucose metabolism
  79. What happens to glucose once its in circulation?
    glucose is taken to the various cells of the body
  80. What happens to glucose within the cells?
    is rapidly converted to glucose-6-phosphate, a major intermediate in glucose metabolism
  81. G6P serves as what?
    starting point for 4 metabolic pathways
  82. during this process,the cell obtains the high-energy molecule ____
    adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
  83. this is energy currency of the cell, mostly gained in mitochondria, and composed of adenosine, ribosome and 3 phosphate groups
    adenosine tripohosphate
  84. ATP needs what?
    all basic cell functions and the whole body in general
  85. ATP is required to convert glucose to_________ by tissue specific isoenzyme known as _____
    glucose 6- phosphate catalyzed, hexokinase
  86. this is a metabolism of glucose to either pyruvate or lactate for production of energy
  87. Whats is the dominant product of aerobic?
  88. This is when oxygen is depleted and lactate is the dominant product
  89. This is glycolytic pathway (Embden-Meyerhof)
    Aerobic glycolysis
  90. Prepatory, Krebs cycle, and Citric Acid cycle is also known as?
    Tricarboxylic Acid
  91. Aerobic Glycolysis is what type of chain?
    Electron Transport
  92. this converts glucose-6-phosphate to two molecules of a three-carbon compound
    pyruvic acid
  93. What is produced in the Tricarboxylic Acid cycle?
    CO2,NADH, and H
  94. This is a biological pathway that breaks down Acetyl CoA, producing CO2, H+, NADH, FADH2, and ATP
    Krebs cycle
  95. This is a waste product that diffuses out of the cells and is given off by the organism.
  96. This accounts for 2 immediate ATP molecules per glucose molecule
    Tricarboxylic acid cycle
  97. In Tricarboxylic both __ and __ will enter the Electron Transport Chain
    NADH and FADH2
  98. This occurs in the mitochondria
    Electron Transport Chain
  99. Electron Transport Chain is the formation of CO2 and H2O as waste product of what?
    glucose metabolism
  100. Electrons move down the chain, carrier are reduced and the ____
  101. Energy is captured and used to form what?
  102. In the END product each glucose molecule yields a net of __-__ ATP molecules(__ from glycolysis, 2 from _____, and 32 or 34 from the electron transport chain, depending on certain conditions.
    36-38....2...citric acid
  103. this is important for tissues such as muscle, which often have important energy requirement w/out an adequate oxygen supply
    Anaerobic glycolysis
  104. In the absence of oxygen what is pyruvic acid converted to?
    lactic acid
  105. Side effects of anaerobic glycolysis are what?
    muscles fatigue, pain, cramps, and soreness
  106. This is the most diffused into the bloodstream, then to the liver, where it is converted back to pyruvic acid when oxygen become available
    Anaerobic glycolysis
  107. this is a detour of glucose 6 phosphate from the glycolysis pathway to become 6-phosphogluconic acid
    Hexose monophosphate shunt (HMP)
  108. this leads to the formation of ribosome-5-phosphate and NADPH
    6-phosphogluconic acid
  109. this produces NADPH for the synthesis of fatty acids and steroids for tissues such as mammary glands, adipose tissue, adrenal cortex and the liver
    Hexose Monophosphate Shunt
  110. this is very important to RBC's which lack mitochondria
  111. NADPH in RBCs help protect what?
    the RBC cell membrane and RBC enzymes from the damaging effects of oxidants and free radicals
  112. The HMP also allows the pentose to enter what?
    glycolytic pathway
  113. In this metabolic process conversion of glucose to glycogen for storage is what?
  114. Glycogenolysis is the breakkdown of what for use as energy?
    glycogen to glucose
  115. This process is glycogen broken back down into glucose when energy is needed
  116. Glycogenesis is mediated by what?
    enzyme glycogen phosphorylase (phosphate group not water break down the linkage)
  117. What are the major depots of glycogen?
    liver and skeletal muscle
  118. Insulin is synthesized by what cells of the Islets of Langerhans in the pancreas?
    Beta cells
  119. ___is the primary homone responsible for increasing glucose levels and synthesized by the ____ of the Islets of Langerhans in the pancreas?
    Glucogon, alpha
  120. This hormone is released during time of stress and increase plasma glucose by inhibiting insulin secretion?
  121. Released from the adrenal cortex on stimulation by ACTH?
    Cortisol or glucorticoid
  122. This hormone is produced by the Delta cells of the Islets of Langerhans of the pancreas?
  123. What are the laboratory findings for the hyperglycemia ?
    • -increased glucose in plasma and urine
    • -increased osmolality
    • -ketones in plasma and urine
    • -decreased blood and urine PH
    • -electrolyte imbalance
  124. A group of metabolic diseases characterized by hyperglycemia due to defects in___ secretion, action or both?
    insulin...diabetes mellitus
  125. What are the characteristics of DM Type 1?
    • -10-20% of Diabetes
    • -Insulin dependecy
    • -children & adolescences
    • -sudden onset
    • -genetic
    • -ketoacidosis
  126. What are the characteristics of Type 2 DM?
    • -most common type of diabetes
    • -obesity
    • -decrease cell or response
    • -ketoacidosis is rare
    • -adult onset
  127. What are some characteristics of Gestational DM?
    • -pregnant women
    • -seen in woman over 25
    • -metabolic & hormonal changes
    • -glucose returns to normal after birth
  128. What are the 3 criteria's for Diabetes Mellitus?
    • -fasting glucose
    • -random glucose
    • -OGTT
  129. According to ADA,__ of the above criteria must be confirmed on different days.
  130. What are normal values for fasting glucose? 2HR OGTT?
    • -60-110
    • -<140
  131. What are the signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia?
    • -dizzyness
    • -nervousness and shaking
    • -confusion
    • -vomiting
    • -sweating
  132. __primary source of energy for brain, erythrocytes, and retinal cells.
  133. ______,_____,_____ are the basic elements of carbohydrates.
    carbon, hydrogen, oxygen
  134. Define glycogenesis
    conversion of glucose to glycogen
  135. Define glycogenolysis
    breakdown of glucogen to glucose
  136. define Glyconeogenesis
    synthesis of proteins to glucose
  137. define hydrolysis
    water breaks down sugars
  138. what do hydrolysis of the following diasaccharides yield? sucrose, lactose, maltose
    • sucrose:glucose+fructose
    • lactose:glucose+galactose
    • maltose:glucose+glucose
  139. ____is also known as complex carbohydrates
  140. ___ means stored glucose.
  141. Insulin is produced by the ___ cells of the ___ in the ___.
    beta, Islets, Langerhans
  142. ____ produced by the adrenal medulla, during time of stress, increase plasma glucose levels by inhibiting insulin secretion.
  143. What are the lab findings for hyperglycemia?
    electrolyte imbalance, increase glucose, increase SG,increase ketones, increase osmolality, decrease PH
  144. When do you perform OGTT on a pregnant woman?
    When levels of GTT were abnormally high if glucose was > 140 mg/dl
  145. What is the main characteristics of G6PD Type 1?
    severe hypoglycemia
  146. What is the most common enzyme defiency for galactosemia?
    galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase
  147. What is the specimen requirement for glycosylated hemoglobin testing?
    EDTA whole blood
  148. Define lipids?
    fats in body, water insoluble
  149. ___ lipids charaterized by having 2-4 double bonds between carbons.
  150. ___ allow for compact energy storage within the body
  151. ____ lipid consisting of a 4-ring structure and side chain of 8 carbon atoms
  152. ____ lipids formed by the conjugation of 2 fatty acids and a phosphorylated glycerol
  153. ____ are proteins used to transport lipids though the bloodstream
  154. ___enzyme from the pancreas acts on tryglycerides removing one fatty acid chain at a time
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