AP Psychology Chapter 14

  1. The difference between having a disorder and being "deviant"
    Deviant behavior causes the person distress
  2. Psychological Disorder
    Deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional behavior patterns
  3. Axis IV
    Are psychosocial or environmental problems, such as school or housing issues, also present?
  4. Axis III
    Is a general medical condition, such as diabetes, hypertension, or arthrisit, also present?
  5. Axis II
    Is a personality disorder or mental retardation present? Clinicians may or may not also select one of these two conditions.
  6. Axis I
    Is the clinical syndrome present? Using specifically defined criteria, clinicians may select none, one, or more syndromes from a list.
  7. How are psychological disorders diagnosed?
    Using the 5 axes, of which are outlined in the DSM - IV
  8. DSM-IV-TR
    • The American Psychiatric Associations Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, with an updated "text revision;" a widely used system for classifying psychological disorders
    • Defines a diagnostic process and 16 clinical syndromes and various disorders
  9. Biopsychosocial Model
    An approach that regognizes that mind and body are inseparable: negative emotions contribute to physical illness, and physical abnormalities contribute to negative emotions
  10. Medical Model
    The concept that diseases, in this case psychological disorders, have physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated, and in most cases, cured, often through treatment in a hospital
  11. Philippe Pinel
    A French psychologist who insisted that madness is not a demon possession but a sickness of the mind caused by severe stresses and inhumane conditions
  12. Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
    A psychological disorder marked by the appearance by age 7 of one or more of three key symptoms: extreme inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity
  13. Harmful Dysfunction
    Behaviors that are a result of disorders that often interfere with work and leisure.
  14. Axis V
    What is the global assesment of this person's functioning? Clinicians assign a code from 0-100
  15. Anxiety Disorders
    Psychological disorders characterized by distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety.
  16. Generalized anxiety disorder
    A person is unexplainably and continually tense and uneasy
  17. Panic Disorder
    A person experiences sudden episodes of intense dread
  18. Phobia
    an anxiety disorder marked by a persistent, irrational fear and avoidance of a specific object or situation
  19. Obsessive-compulsive disorder
    An anxiety disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts (obsessions) and/or actions (compulsions)
  20. Post-traumatic Stress Disorder
    An anxiety disorder characterized by haunting memories, nightmares, social withdrawal, jumpy anxiety, and/or insomnia that lingers for four weeks or more after a traumatic experience
  21. Post-traumatic growth
    Positive psychological changes as a result of struggling with extremely challenging circumstances and life crises
  22. Peter Suedfeld
    Documented the resilience of Holocaust survivors
  23. Richard Tedeschi and Lawrence Calhoun
    Found that individuals who struggle with challenging crises, such as fighting cancer, often leads people to report an increased appreciate for life, more meaningful relationship, increased personal strength, changed priorities, and a richer spiritual life.
  24. The Learning Perspective
    The theory that fear conditioning leads to anxiety, which then becomes associated with other objects and events and is reinforced.
  25. Fear Conditioning
    When bad events happen unpredictably and uncontrollably, anxiety often develops. Such anxiety can be perpetuated through stimulus generalization and reinforcement.
  26. Reinforcement
    The response after an individual is exposed to a stimulus, rewarding their reaction.
  27. Stimulus generalization
    A learned behavior in which an individual reacts to similar stimuli in the same way, having mentally categorized them in as the same thing.
  28. The biological perspective
    Generalized anxiety, panic attacks, and OCD are linked with brain circuits.
  29. Natural Selection
    The theory that humans are biologically prepared to fear threats face by our ancestors, which made them more likely to survive and leave descendants.
  30. Genes
    Influence the likelihood of individuals of the same family having anxiety disorders. The anxiety gene affects brain levels of serotonin or glutamate.
  31. The Brain
    Disorders are biologically manifested as an overarousal of brain areas involved in impulse control and habitual behaviors. When it detects that something is asmiss, it seems to generate a mental hiccup of repeating thoughts or actions.
  32. Anterior Cingulate Cortex
    A brain region that monitors our actions and checks for errors; is more likely to be hyperactive in those with OCD
  33. Somatoform Disorders
    A psychological disorder in which the symptoms take a bodily form without apparent physical cause
  34. Conversion Disorder
    A rare somatoform disorder in which a person experiences very specific genuine physical symptoms for which no physiological basis can be found
  35. Hypochondriasis
    A somatoform disorder in which a person interprets normal physical sensations as symptoms of a disease
  36. Dissociative Disorders
    Disorders in which conscious awareness becomes separated from previous memories, thoughts, and feelings.
  37. Dissociative Identity Disorder
    A rare dissociative disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distince and alternation personalities, formerly called multiple personality disorder. It is thought to be an extension of the human capacity to shift personality.
  38. Dissociatvie amnesia
    A loss of identity due to a traumatic event
  39. Dissociative fugue
    Amnesia accompanied by active flight to a different environment where the past is forgotten and the individual establishes a new identiy in a new environment
  40. Mood Disorders
    Psychological disorders characterized by emotional extremes
  41. Major Depressive Disorder
    A mood disorder in which a person experiences, in the absence of drugs ro a medical condition, two or more weeks of significantly depressed moods, feelings of worthlessness, and diminished interest of pleasure in most activities.
  42. Mania
    A mood disorder marked by a hyperactive, wildly optimistic state.
  43. Bipolar disorder
    a mood disorder in w hich the person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania; formerly called manic-depressive disorder.
  44. Peter Lewinsohn
    • 1. Many behavioral and cognitive changes accompany depression: they feel unmotivated, are sensitive to negative happenings, and expect negative outcomes.
    • 2. Depression is widespread: Its commonality suggests that its causes, too, must be common.
    • 3. Compared with men, women are nearly twice as vulnerable to major depression: Women are more vulnerable to disorders involving internatilzed states, while men tend to have more external disorders
    • 4. Most major depressive episodes self-terminate: Therapy tends to speed recovery, but most individuals with major depression eventually return to normal. About 50% of those who recover from depression will suffer another episode within two years.
  45. Depression's Vicious Cycle
    • 1. Stressful experiences
    • 2. Negative explanatory style
    • 3. Depressed mood
    • 4. Cognitive and behavioral changes
  46. Schizophrenia
    A group of severe disorders characterized by disorganized and delusional thinking, disturbed perceptions, and inappropriate emotions and actions.
  47. Delusions
    False beliefs, often of persecution or grandeur, that may accompany psychotic disorders.
  48. Paranoid Schizophrenia
    Preoccupation with delusions or hallucinations, often with themes of persecution or grandiosity
  49. Disorganized Schizophrenia
    Disorganized speech or behavior, or flat or inappropriate emotion
  50. Catatonic Schizophrenia
    Immobility, extreme negativism, and/or parrotlike repeating of another's speech or movements
  51. Undifferentiated Schizophrenia
    Many and varied symptoms that either fall under multiple categories or none of the categories
  52. Remission/Residual Schizophrenia
    Withdrawal, after hallucinations and delusions have disappeared
  53. Brain abnormalities that accompany schizophrenia
    • 1. Excess amounts of dopamine receptors
    • 2. Abnormally low brain activity in the frontal lobes
    • 3. A noticeable decline in the brain waves that reflect synchronized neural firing in the frontal lobes
    • 4. The core regions of the brain become vigorously active during hallucinations
  54. Personality Disorders
    Psychological disorders characterized by inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning
  55. Antisocial Personality Disorder
    A personality disorder in which the person exhibits a lack of conscience for wrongdoing, even toward friends and family members; may be aggressive and ruthless or a clever con artist.
  56. Avoidant Personality Disorder
    A personality disorder in which th eperson expresses a fearful sensitivity to rejection that predisposes them to withdraw
  57. Schizoid Personality Disorder
    The person exhibits eccentric behaviors, such as emotionless disengagement
Card Set
AP Psychology Chapter 14
AP Psych chapter 14 terms from "Psychology Ninth Edition"