psychology 133

  1. IMPORTANT: High reliability does not ensure validity
  2. projective tests
    • reputedly assess unconscious processes
    • most renowned projective test is the Rorschach Inkblot Test
    • almost impossible to standardize
    • statedependent (e.g., affected by mood)
    • questionable reliability and validity can be dangerous when used forensically
  3. behavioral assessment
    • sometimes referred to as functional analysis
    • A= Antecedent; B = Behavior; C = Consequence

    EX. A; teased at school ->B. school refusual -> C. No teasing

    • the purpose of behavioral assessment is to identify the function of a maladaptive behavior and eliminate that function
    • example :if acting sick gets a child out of gong to school, acting sick is reinforced ,acting sick needs to be ignored, so it no longer serves the function of getting out of school positive vs. negative reinforcement
  4. objective assessment
    • Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)
    • empirical (vs. rational) test derivation
    • face validity vs. criterion validity
    • example MMPI questions:
    • criterion valid: I like mechanics magazines
    • face valid: I see things or animals or people around me that others do not see
  5. Face validity
    assess what somthing is
  6. criterion validity
    predicts the assessment
  7. Positive Reinforcement
    • Think of it as adding something in order to increase a response.
    • example, adding a treat will increase the response of sitting; adding praise will increase the chances of your child cleaning his or her room.
    • The most common types of positive reinforcement are praise and rewards
  8. Negative Reinforcement
    • Think of negative reinforcement as taking something negative away in order to increase a response.
    • strengthens a behavior because a negative condition is stopped or avoided as a consequence of the behavior.
    • example Driving in heavy traffic is a negative condition for most of us. You leave home earlier than usual one morning, and don't run into heavy traffic. You leave home earlier again the next morning and again you avoid heavy traffic. Your behavior of leaving home earlier is strengthened by the consequence of the avoidance of heavy traffic.
  9. paradigm
    • a set of basic assumptions, a general perspective, that defines how to hypothesize and study a subject.
    • they specify what problems scientists will investigate and how they will go about the investigation
  10. shared environment
    (genetic paradigm)
    factors include those things that members of a family have in common. such as family income level, childprearing practices, and parents' marital status
  11. nonshared environment
    (genetic paradigm)
    • factors believed to be distinct among members of a family. such as relationships with friends or specific events unique to a person (being on the swim team)
    • These are believed to be important in understanding why two siblings form the same family can be so different.
  12. Behavior Genetics
    the study of the degree to which genes and environmental factors influence behavior
  13. genotype
    • the total genetic makeup of an individual, consisting of inherited genes
    • (physical sequence of DNA)
  14. phenotype
    the totality of observable behavioral characteristics, such as level of anxiety
  15. Molecular genetics
    studies seek to identify particular genes and their functions.
  16. clinical scales
    • scale 1-10
    • scale abbrev. description constructed assessment item
    • 6/ Pa/ Paranoia /level of trust; suspiciousness/ 40
  17. Validity Scale
    • (know if the person is telling the truth)
    • abbreviation description construct assessed
    • CNS/ cannot say /questions not answered
    • L/ lie/ client "faking good"
  18. content scales
    • abbreviation description
    • Es / ego strength scale
    • OH / over-controlled hostility
  19. MMPI test
    • a lengthy personality inventory that identifies individuals with states such as anxiety, depression, masculinity-feminity, and paranoia, through their true-false replies to groups of statements
    • -hard to fake
    • -all new clients take this test when they first com in
  20. gene-environment interactions
    • a given person's sensitivity to an environmental event is influenced by genes
    • Ex the likelihood of developing depression if: no maltreatment; possible maltreatment; severe maltreatment.
    • 2 short alleles have the highest likelihood, then one long one short, and 2 longs aren't affected by maltreatment
  21. Views of science
    • static- science is the systematic accumulation of knowledge
    • dynamic- science is the activity of hypothesis generation and testing
  22. dopamine
    • CNS neurotransmitter
    • may be involoved in depression, mania, & schizophrenia
    • precursor of norepinephrine
  23. serotonin
    • CNS neurotransmitter
    • may be involved in depression, maia, and schizophrenia
  24. norepinephrine
    • neurotransmitter
    • communicates with the sympathetic nercous system, where it is involved in producing states of high arousal and thus may be involved int he anxiety disorders and other stress-related conditions
  25. gamma-amiobutyric acid (GABA)
    • inhibitory neurotransmitter
    • inhibits nerve impulses throughout most areas of the brain and may be involved in the anxiety disorders
  26. allele
    different forms of the same gene
  27. polygenic
    different genes contributing to a disorder
  28. gene expression
    the process by which genes are turned on and off
  29. agonist vs. antagonist
    • methods used to study how nuerotransmitters are working in the brain. a drug that stimulates a particular neurotransmitter's receptors is an agonist.
    • an antagonist is a drug that works on a neurotransmitter's receptors to dampen the activity of that neurotransmitter.
  30. amygdala
    • in the tip of the tempral lobe
    • important area for attention to emotionally salient stimuli and memory of emotionally relevant events.
    • key brain structures for psychopathology researchers given the amount of emotional problems in the psychological disorders
  31. methods of knowing (Charles Peirce)
    • tenacity- it's true because I know it's true
    • authority- it's true because the Bible tells me so
    • a priori- it's true because it stands to reason
    • scientific- it's "true" if repeated empirical observation does not refute it
  32. Hypothalamus
    regulates metabolism. temp, BP, sleeping and appetite
  33. HPA axis
    (Hypothalamus, pituitary, adrenal cortex)
    • pg.40
    • central to the bnody's response to stress, and stress figures prominently in many disorders
    • not a fast moving system
  34. cortisol
    referred to as the stress hormone
  35. autonomic nervus system (ANS)
    is divided into 2 parts sympathetic and parasypathetic
    • sympathetic-prepares the body of "fight or flight"
    • parasympathedic- helps calm down the body.
  36. The limbic system of the brain includes what 5 areas?
    • hypothalamus
    • anterior cingulate
    • septal area
    • hippocampus
    • amygalda
  37. matter of the brain
    Gray vs. White
    • Gray- refers to the brain's cells or neurons
    • White- consists of the tracts of myelinated fibers that connect cells
  38. Behavioral activation therapy (BA) of depression
    • invloves helping a person engage in tasks that provide an opportunity for positive reinforcement.
    • uses exposure and systematic desensitization
    • first use desensitization and imagine the different levels of phobia
    • then, expose them to the real thing (in vivo)
  39. cognition
    term that groups together the mental processes of perceiving, recognizing, conceiving, judging, and reasoning.
  40. Cognitive Science
    focuses on how people structure their experiences, how they make sense of them, and how they relate their current experiences to past ones that have been stored in memory.
  41. Stroop test
    • color words in different color blue
    • this method was modified to focus on emotion rather than colors.
    • wrote emotion words such as happy, danger, threat in different colors
    • tested ppl with anxiety disorder
    • they showed more interference for threatening words
  42. DSM
    Axis I
    • Clinical disorders, and conditions that need clinical attention.
    • Examples: schizophrenia
    • mood disorders (major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, etc.)
    • anxiety disorders
    • eating disorders
    • disorders first diagnosed in childhood (ADHD, conduct disorder, etc.)
  43. DSM
    Axis II
    • Personality disorders and mental retardation.
    • Examples: antisocial personality disorder (ASPD)
    • borderline personality disorder (BPD)
    • schizotypal personality disorderany form of mental retardation
  44. DSM
    Axis III
    • General medical conditions.
    • Examples: infectious diseases (e.g., AIDS, hepetitis)
    • diseases of the circulatory system (e.g., hypertension, atherosclerosis)
    • injuries,
    • poisonings, etc.
  45. DSM
    Axis IV
    • Psychosocial and environmental problems
    • homelessness
    • unemployment
    • recent death of a loved one
    • involvement with the criminal justice system
  46. DSM
    Axis V
    Global assessment of functioning scale (0-100)
Card Set
psychology 133
chapter 2 & 3