Quiz # 3

  1. What are the six major groups of nutrients in the diet?
    • Carbohydrates
    • Lipids/fats
    • Proteins
    • Vitamins
    • Minerals
    • Water
  2. What are functional groups?
    Clusters of atoms that give compounds specific characteristics
  3. Hydroxyl
  4. Amino structure
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  5. Sulfhydryl structure
  6. Carboxyl structure
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  7. Phosphate structure
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  8. Describe carbohydrates
    • Made of C, H, O
    • Primary energy source for living organisms
    • Cannot be synthesized by animals, get from plants
    • Sugars, usually end in "-ose"
    • Monosaccharides and disaccharides
  9. Monosaccharide properties
    • Simplest sugar - 1 ring
    • Usually 1C:2H:1O
    • Some examples: fructose (fruit sugar), galactose (milk)
  10. What is this?

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  11. Disaccharide properties
    • two monosaccharides joined - 2 rings
    • monomer - subunit; small molecule
    • polymer - large molecule made from many smaller repeating subuits
  12. What is this?

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  13. Polysaccharide properties
    • A complex carbohyrdate made of many joined monosaccharides.
    • Ex. starch, glycogen, cellulose, fibre
  14. Starch
    • amylose - repeating chains of glucose
    • main energy storage in plants
  15. Glycogen
    • glucose stored in animals
    • long chains of glucose
  16. Cellulose
    • Structural component of plant cell wall
    • Repeating chains of glucose where every other molecule is flipped
    • Passes through human digestive system undigested (fibre or roughage)
  17. Fibre
    • Undigested parts of fruits, vegetables, grains, nuts and legumes
    • Two types: soluble and insoluble
  18. Soluble fibre
    • Within plant cells
    • Include pectin, gums and mucilages
    • Partially broken down in large intestine
  19. Insoluble fibre
    Wheat and cor bran, whole grain breads and cereals, vegetables, fruit skins and nuts
  20. What is this?

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  21. What are lipids?
    • C, H, O. More H than carbohydrates.
    • Not water soluble
    • Can be saturated or unsaturated fatty acids
  22. Saturated fatty acids
    • Only single bonds between carbon atoms
    • Tight packing of C
    • Solid at room temperature
    • Found in most animal fats
  23. What is this?

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    Saturated fatty acid
  24. Unsaturated fatty acids
    • At least one double bond; monounsaturated and polyunsaturated
    • Bent shape; loosely packed
    • Liquid at room temperature
    • Found in plant oils, fish oils and margarine
  25. What is this?

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    Unsaturated fatty acid
  26. Proteins
    • Contain C, H, O, N, S
    • More than 50% of dry mass of most cells
    • Functional (enzymes) and structural (collagen)
    • Amino acid and polypeptide
  27. Amino acid
    • Protein subunit; 20 different kinds
    • 8 essential because body cannot make them
  28. Polypeptide
    A short chain of amino acids
  29. What is this?

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    Amino acid
  30. Minerals
    • Inorganic, must be eaten
    • Required in small amounts; need 22 minerals
  31. Vitamins
    • Organic, body cannot synthesize
    • Fat soluble (A, D, E, K) can be toxic
    • Water soluble - excess is flushed out of body
  32. Water
    • 55-70% of body is water
    • Transports materials, regulates body temperature, aids in digestion, moistens skin
  33. What are carbohydrates used for?
    Source of energy
  34. Distinguish between monosaccharide, disaccharide and polysaccharide using examples
    • Monosaccharide - one ring; glucose
    • Disaccharide - two rings; sucrose
    • Polysaccharide - many rings; starch
  35. What is fibre? Where does it come from?
    Undigested parts of fruits, vegetables, grains nuts and legumes
  36. What are the functions of lipids?
    • Energy storage for animals
    • Aid in vitamin storage and insulation of body
    • Main component of cell membrane
    • Used to make some hormones
  37. What are triglycerides made of?
    Glycerol and three fatty acids
  38. Distinguish between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids
    • Saturated - only single bonds between carbons
    • Unsaturated - at least one double bond
  39. What is hydrogenation?
    The process of breaking the double bond between carbons and adding hydrogens
  40. What are proteins made of?
    C, H, O, N, S
  41. How does a polypeptide differ from a protein?
    Polypeptides are short chains of amino acids while proteins are long
  42. What are essential amino acids?
    Amino acids that the body cannoy make on its own
  43. What are minerals?
    Inorganic substances that must be eaten and are required in small amounts
  44. What are minerals used for?
    • Keep bones and teeth strong (fluorode)
    • Produce thyroid hormone and regulate metabolism (iodine)
  45. What are vitamins?
    Organic chemicals that the body cannot synthesize in sufficient quantities, or not at all
  46. How do fat soluble and water soluble vitamins differ?
    Water soluble vitamins are flushed out of the body and therefore need to be taken in daily. Fat soluble vitamins are stored in body and excess may be toxic.
  47. Define carbohydrate
    Primary energy source in the digest; can only be synthesized by plants
  48. Define fibre
    The undigested cellulose that passes through the human digestive system
  49. Define amino acids
    the building blocks of proteins
  50. Essential amino acids
    the 8 amino acids that cannot be synthesized in the body
  51. Triglycerides
    fats that consist of glycerol and three fatty acids
  52. Carboxyl
    functional group consisting of a carbon, two oxygen and a hydrogen
  53. Cellulose
    the undigested part of plants making up fibre
  54. Hydroxyl
    functional group consisting of an oxygen and hydrogen
  55. Iodine
    mineral important in the transmission of nerve impulses
  56. Calcium
    mineral important in the formation of bones
  57. Enzyme
    • Protein
    • Increasing temperature increases the rate of reaction
    • Proteins denature at high temperatures
    • High or low pH and high salt can also cause denaturing
    • Most end in "-ase"
  58. Catalyst
    Substance that speeds up a chemical reaction without being consumed in the process and can be repeatedly used by the same reaction
  59. Enzyme - definition
    Protein that acts as a catalyst to bring about a specific biochemical reaction
  60. Denature
    When proteins begin to change at high temperatures
  61. Optimal conditions
    the conditions that result in the highest rate of reaction
  62. Critical point
    Mrks the condition beyond which denaturing occurs/dramatic drop in the rate of a reaction
  63. Cofactors
    things that help some enzymes function properly, may bind to active site or weakly to substrate
  64. Substrate
    a molecule upon which enzymes act
  65. Active site
    the place on an enzyme where a substrate attaches
  66. Lipase
    Breaks down lipids into glycerol and fatty acids
  67. Diagram of enzyme
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Card Set
Quiz # 3
First quiz of unit 3