Chapter 3/preg. and prenatal development

  1. What 4 parts make up the female reproductive system
    • ovary: holds the ova
    • fallopian tube: where fertilization occurs
    • uterus: where the zygote inplants
    • cervix: holds baby in
  2. Describe what happens once the first sperm penetrate the egg?
    it forms a crust so that no other sperm can penetrate, if 2 penetrate it will result in a misscarriage
  3. What are dizygotic twins or paternal twins
    two different eggs (one from each ovary), two different sperm, 2 seperate zygotes, 2 different babies, different DNA
  4. What are monozygotic twins or identical twins
    one egg, one sperm, 2 babies that are identical due to the splitting of the same egg into 2. exact same DNA
  5. What are the 3 stages of pregnancy
    • germinal: zygote to 2 weeks, blastula forms
    • embryonic: 2 weeks to 8 weeks, most important development (spontaneous abortion happens here)
    • fetal: 8 weeks to birth, growth
  6. What is the germinal stage of pregnancy
    • zygote to 2 weeks
    • forms a blastula (hollow ball that forms around the zygote)
  7. What is a blastula
    hollow ball that forms around the zygote in the germinal phase of pregnancy zygote - 2 weeks
  8. What is the embryonic stage of pregnancy
    2 weeks to 8 weeks, major development occurs and the most important time of a pregnancy (spontaneous abortion happens here)
  9. What is the fetal phase of pregnancy
    8 weeks till birth, time or growth, lungs grow more at the end
  10. when does spontaneous abortion/miscarriages happen?
    embryonic phase of pregnancy
  11. what is lanugo? when does it appear and disappear?
    layer of thick downy hair or fur which starts at 4 months and goes away at 7 months
  12. what happens at 4 months of pregnancy
    Lanugo develops, heartbeat is clear, baby may kick
  13. What is the vernix caseosa and why does it develop? When is it formed?
    protective coating for scratches which starts at 5 months
  14. what happens at 5 months of pregnancy
    vernix caseosa forms
  15. what happens at 7 months of a pregnancy
    lanugo goes away
  16. What are the 2 principles of prenatal development
    • cephalocaudal principle: head to tail
    • proximodistal principle: inside to outside or near to far
  17. What is the cephalocaudal principle
    • head to tail principle
    • children develop from top to bottom
  18. What is the proximodistal principle
    • near to far principle
    • children develop starting inside to the outside
    • internal organs develop first, hands later
  19. What is a teratogen
    • destructive influences in developing child
    • i.e. drugs, alcohol, stress, smoking, plasmosis, MRSA, cancer, disease, abuse, falls, accidents, mercury, salt, chemicals, CAFFINE
  20. What does caffine do to you?
    • stimulate similar to cocaine
    • CNS stimulant
  21. what are the 3 blastocyst layers and what do they form?
    • inside endoderm: organs
    • middle mesoderm: muscle/blood
    • outside ectoderm: Skin/hair/nails
    • develops all three layers and then rolls up into a ball aroung the zygote
  22. What is the endoderm layer of blastocyst and what does it make?
    • organ cells
    • inside layer of blastocyst
  23. What is the mesoderm layer of blastocyst and what does it make?
    • middle layer
    • muscle and blood
  24. What is the ectoderm layer of blastocyst and what does it form?
    • outside layer
    • skin, hair, nails
  25. good prenatal care consist of what 4 things?
    • thorough health history
    • full medical exam
    • counsel parents on potential risks
    • develop a good Dr/Pt. rapport
  26. how many pounds should a woman gain in a preganacy
    22-28 lbs
  27. What are the 3 stages is the budding process?
    • labor: uterine contractions, cerviz dialates, mucus plug falls out, effacement/softening and thinning of the cervix 12 hrs
    • birth: 60-90 minutes, episiotomy is the cut between anus and vagina
    • afterbirth: expulsion of placents and umbilical cord, 5-30 minutes (all of it needs to come out or will become ceptic
  28. What is labor and how long does it last?
    • uterine contractions, dialated cervix
    • showing = mucous plug fall out of cervix (water breaks)
    • effacement = softening and thinning of the cervix
    • takes on average 12 hours
  29. what is birth and how long does it last?
    • birth of the baby takes 60-90 minutes
    • episiotomy = cut between vagina and anus
  30. What is afterbirth and how long does it take to come out?
    • placents and umbilical cord expulsion 5-30 minutes
    • need the whole placenta out or it can become ceptic
  31. What is the apgar test
    • done at 1 minute after birth and then again at 5 minutes
    • 5 scales worth 0 to 2 points
    • 0 = stillborn
    • 7= good
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Chapter 3/preg. and prenatal development