EK Literary Studies

  1. What are the criteria for defining Literature? (5)
    • 1. no normative description (good/bad/who can decide)
    • 2. literary vs non-literary (poem / nameplate)
    • 3. mimesis (imitate the real world)
    • 4. poesis (create a world that interplays with reality)
    • 5. fictionality (invent)
  2. Describe the communication model
    real author

    • intertextual level / literary text, poem:
    • fictive speaker (lyric I; adresser) -> message -> fictive reader (lyric thou, adressee)

    real reader
  3. Definitions for Literature (2) + short explanation:
    • Normative:
    • deductiv, very strict

    • Descriptive:
    • inductive, find common features
  4. Problem with Definitions for Literature
    • - hybrid forms excluded
    • - not adjustable
    • - pure genre?
    • - definitions change in the course of time
  5. Charateristics of literary texts?
    • - sequence of signs, that are shaped in an artistic manner and or deal with a fictional topic
    • - fixation: a text has to be sat down somewhere (paper, usb)
  6. Features of fictional texts (5)
    • - no useful information for real life expected
    • - textual signs (once upon a time)
    • - publishing context (paperback vs. NewYorkTimes)
    • - Paratextual sings (title, legal disclaimers)
    • - artistic language
  7. What is a Genre?
    • - a way of classification for literature
    • - texts that share several features form one genre
  8. Problems with definitions via Genre?
    • - changes over time
    • - really natural forms
    • - pure vs hybrid
    • - exceptions?
  9. criteria for generic genre classification
    • - language
    • - nation
    • - external form
    • - medium
    • - theme
  10. Basic characteristics of the genre of poetry
    • - brevity
    • - subjectivity
    • - lyricism (combination with music)
    • - structuralist theory (use of words and language, rhyming ...)
    • - poetic function
    • - alsmost regular metre, lines, stanzas
    • - deviation from everyday language
    • Paradigmatic axis:
    • elements that could be substituted by similar one

    • Syntagmatic axis:
    • - sth. is put together
    • - rules of combination (syntax, grammar, chronological sequence)

    Projection of the principle of equivalence onto syntagmatic relations
  12. Perspective of a literary text
    • Explicit subjectivity:
    • obvious, first person narrator, refers to himself, explains his own thoughts and feelings

    • Implicit subjectivity:
    • persona is hidden and story is simply told. 3rd person narrator

    speech situation can change during text
  13. Structure of Poetry

    What is METRE?
    Pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables (tri-, tetra-, penta-, hexameter)
  14. Structure of Poetry

    What is the NUMBER OF FEET
    number of stressed syllables
  15. Structure of Poetry

    • iamb -/
    • trochee /-
    • dactylus /--
    • anapest --/
    • spondee //
    • amphibrach -/-
  16. Structure of Poetry

    What is RHYTHM?
    metre+lenght of syllables+meaning of words
  17. Structure of Poetry

    What is the NUMBER OF FEET
    number of stressed syllables of a line (tri, tetra, penta hexameter etc.
  18. Structure of Poetry

    What is an ENJAMBMENT?
    Sentence of a Poem that does not end with the end of the line.
  19. Structure of Poetry

    a break in metre which divides up a line of verse into parts

    abab (caesura) cdcd
  20. Structure of Poetry

    What is the STANZAIC FORM?
    appearance of a poem on the page (couplet: 2 lines; triplet: 3 lines)

    organization of a poem
  21. Structure of Poetry

    What is a HEROIC CUPLET?
    End of 2 lines (a couplet) rhyme
  22. Structure of Poetry

    What´s special about the SHAKESPEAREAN SONNETT
    14 lines

    • abab
    • cdcd
    • efef
    • gg
  23. PR

    What is Rhyme?
    Rhyme is a consonance of phonemes in a word from the last stressed vowel, at the end of a verse.

    Der Einklang der letzten betonten Silbe einer Zeile zu einer weiteren Zeile.
  24. PR

    Types of Rhymes
    • - Endrhyme vs internal rhyme (position of rhyme within a line)
    • - masculine vs feminine rhyme (last vowel vs last syllable)
    • - perfect vs imperfect rhyme (exact consonance of rhyming syllables vs only party of a word rhyme)
  25. Rhyme Schemes (5)
    • rhyming couplets (aa bb cc)
    • alternate rhyme (abab cdcd)
    • embracing rhyme/envelope rhyme (abba cddc)
    • chain rhyme/interlocking rhyme (aba bcb cdc)
    • tail rhyme (aab ccb)
  26. What is ALLITERATION?
    the succession of words with the same initial sound (when will we work)
    • Consonance:
    • congruence of consonants short of alliteration (goBBlets of bluBBer)

    • Assonance:
    • congruence between vowel sounds only (blInd Eyes)
  28. What is ONOMATOPOEIA
    Use of words to imitate sound.

    • MIAU
    • WEEEEEEEEEEE (frizzbee)
  29. Morphological and Syntactic Structures

    What is an ANAPHORA?
    repetition of a word or group of words at the beginning of the successive sentence

    • SO LONG as men...
    • SO LONG lives this ...
  30. Morphological and Syntactic Structures

    Repetition of a root in different forms:

    I had Lit some lighter fire of freer freedom
  31. Morphological and Syntactic Structures

    What is SYNONYMY?
    repetition oby the replacement of one word with another of the same meaning

  32. Morphological and Syntactic Structures

    What is an ASYNDETON? What´s a POLYSYNDETON?
    • succession of words or phrases wiothout conjoining words
    • All whom war, death, age, agues ...

    • conjoining words are used link words or parts of a sentence
    • After t´he sunset AND the dooryards AND the sprinkled streets, ...
  33. Morphological and Syntactic Structures

    What is INVERSION?
    reversal of normal word order

    Here RESTS HIS HEAD upon the lap of earth
  34. Morphological and Syntactic Structures

    What is ELLIPSIS?
    omission of sentence components

    ellipsing a part in the sentence, to make it rhyme for the reader might guess what sould be there

    "authors are partial to their wit, tis true, but are not critics XXX to their judgement too?
  35. Morphological and Syntactic Structures

    What is ZEUGMA?
    the application of one verb to more than one object in different senses.

    • „Die Begierde besiegte die Scham, die Verwegenheit die Furcht, der Wahnwitz die Vernunft.
    • CICERO
  36. What´s a METAPHOR?
    a shortened or covert comparison

    word pictures

    Lend me your ear =]
  37. What´s a DEAD METAPHOR?
    an expression that used to be metaphorical, but was used excessively to the point where we don´t recognize it as a metaphor anymore

    Can you lend me a hand?
  38. What´s a SIMILE?
    a comparison:

    • Robert Burns:
    • Oh, my love is like a red, red rose
    • That´s newly sprung in june
    • My love is like the melody
    • That´s sweetly player in tune
  39. What´s METONOMY?
    replacement of one word with anotherone that is logically or otherwise connected before the sentence appears.
  40. What´s a SYNECDOCHE?
    logical link, that only appeals to 1 of 2 possibilities.

    germany won against england in the final round of football.
  41. What´s an ISOTOPY
    To compare an included image one after another.

    Shall I compare thee to a summer´s day.
  42. Theatre VS Drama

    What´s the difference?
    Theatre: People sitting in the dark, while others are standing in light.

    Drama: unnarrated, unmediated acting of something that might have happend.
  43. First Play´s - name 3 important persons
    • Sophocles
    • aeschylus
    • euripides
  44. Script vs. Play

    name 4 characteristics
    • script is written by 1 author, the play usually involves more
    • every performance should be rated by itself (always slight differences)
    • a script is the absolute base, followed by a concept, stage and actor selection, costumes, makeup ...
  45. Famous Theatre Stages (2) and their features
    • Amphitheatres:
    • - a lot of people fit in
    • - good acoustics
    • - exaggerated gestures required
    • Shakespearean Stage:
    • - great for indoor scenes
    • - plays written to fit the stage
    • - wordscenery if outdoors-scene

    • The Box:
    • real props, curtains, lighting ... the fourth wall
  46. What is meant when saying "The absolute nature of drama"?
  47. What is Primary- / Secondary Text?
    • Primary:
    • verbal communication, everything that is spoken on stage

    • Secondary:
    • stage directions, act/scene numbers, title page ...
  48. What is a CLOSET DRAMA?
    a drama that´s meant to be read out aloud
  49. What types of beginnings could there be for a play? (2)
    • Dramatic Introduction:
    • establish a communication channel between the stage and the audience

    • exposition:
    • inform the audience of preceding actions
  50. What´s the structure of a metaphor?
    Vehicle (Family) - in source domain

    that has overlapping features shared with the tenor

    Tenor (British Empire) - in target domain

    transfer salient features of a known group to the target domain
  51. What types of speech can be found in a drama?
    • dialogue: 2+ people talking
    • monologue: 1 person speaking
    • dialogical speech: move plot forward, clarifie opinions, entertainment
    • monological speech: 1 person speaking with others on stage
    • soliloquy: character is, or believes to be alone on stage
    • Aside: remark of 1 character, not meant to be heard by others on stage (monological, dialogical, aside ad spectators)
  52. What is DRAMATIC IRONY?
    character on stage has less information than the audience (establishes a relation to the characters)
  53. Drama: Characters and Characterisation

    • First contact with a character on stage
    • list of characters at the beginning of a play
  54. Drama: Characters and Characterisation

    graphic representation of the relationships of characters on stage
  55. Drama: Characters and Characterisation

    stereotypic character that does not change during the play (captain, old woman, mizer ...)
  56. Drama: Characters and Characterisation

    • contradictory
    • complex
    • develops during play
  57. Drama: Characters and Characterisation

    • stage directions
    • character judgements given by other characters on stage (you´re an idiot. you´re so wise ...)
  58. Drama: Characters and Characterisation

    • conclusions that can be drawn about a character
    • stem from actions, behaviour, speech
  59. Drama: Characters and Characterisation

    Figural VS Authorial (characterisation)
    • Figural:
    • by speech, gestures, actions (every explicit characterisation of others is an implicit characterisation of oneself)

    • Authorial:
    • information given in the second text
    • a telling name, for example oliver TWIST
  60. Action in Drama

    What are the 6 Elements of a Tragedy(=Drama) after Aristotle?
    • plot-structure
    • character
    • style
    • thought
    • spectacle
    • lyric-poetry
  61. Plot-Structure of a typical ancient greek play:
    • prologos: introduction
    • parodos: enter of choros, first song
    • epeisodion: moments of action (rising action, climax, final action)
    • stasimon: chorus songs
    • exodus: exit the chorus
  62. What are the features of a closed structure drama? (Aristotle) (5)
    • no episodic structure
    • recognition and reversal
    • no new characters after act 1
    • ständeklausel
    • one person who isn´t preeminent in virtue and justice, and one who isn´t bad but has his flaws
  63. What are the conflict types of a drama? (3)
    • conflict of parties
    • conflict of judgement
    • inner conflict
  64. What types of representations of place and time are available inthe Drama? (3)
    • unity of space (sets, word scenery, semanticisation of space)
    • unity of action
    • unity of time
  65. What is the difference between STORY and DISCOURSE?
    • Story: fabula, what is told
    • Discourse: Sjuzhet, how is it told
    • the can be independent from one another
  66. Communication Model for narrative texts:

    Poetry / Drama / Narratives
    • Poetry: no story, no narrator
    • Drama: story, no narrator
    • Narrative: story, narrator
  67. What´s the difference between a STORY and a PLOT?
    The PLOT has reason, causality, links. The Story has only events in a timeline.

    • The king died, then the queen died = Story.
    • Kind died, then the queen died OUT OF GRIEF = Plot
  68. What is an EVENT of a Plot?
    the smallest unit, simply defined as something that happens
  69. What is the Kernel of a story?
    main idea and episodes of a story, that lead to the next step of the story (nucleus)
  70. What´s the CATALYST of a story?
    the less important aspects of a story that make it lifelike but don´t help developing the story (eating, sleeping ...)
  71. Name 3 Plottypes:
    • quest
    • revenge
    • seduction
  72. Name 3 characteristic Beginnings of a story.
    • ab ovo: from the birth of a character
    • in medias res: directly to action
    • ultimas res: end of story
  73. Name 2 characteristic endings of a story.
    • Closed Ending:
    • poetic jsutice - the bad one dies
    • deus ex machine - divine interference (DBZ help from Piccolo)

    Open Ending: conflict isn´t resolved
  74. What´s the SETTING of a story?
    a narratives specific location in space and time
  75. Story Time VS Discoures Time?
    • Story Time: time that passes in the narrated world
    • Discourse Time: time that passes while actually reading, playing, watching a movie etc.
  76. The Category of Space in a story. Types and Usage?
    • Types: mood invested space, space of action, observed space
    • Examples: campus novel, whodunit, gothic novel, fairy tales
    • Use: Semanticisation of space = space carries meaning (old castle)
  77. The Structures of the Artistic Text

    Yuri Lotman
    • Hero is the character that crosses the most borders
    • after crossing a border the character realises that it wasn´t a border
    • after bordercrossing the uncomfortable situation can be changed by changing the environment (buidling a house...)
    Set to a travel and return with something of great value
  79. What´s the POINT OF NO RETURN?
    • extrempunktregel
    • thickest, densest part of a forrest
    • reversal of action is not an option anymore
  80. Explain the 3 types of NARRATORS!
    • Omniscient (=authorial): 3rd person, outside perspective, narraotor (godlike knowledge, doesn´t participate)
    • Personal(=figural): reflector, inside perspective, 3rd person (as if through the eyes of a character, subjective impressions, internal processes)
    • I-Narration: narrator, 1st person, inside perspektive (closer to reader but can be unreliable, can be protagonist or witness
  81. What are possible communication levels of the speaker?
    • Extradiagetic: basic framework of the story including all characters, spaces, focalizers etc.
    • Intradiagetic: Story within a story
  82. What types of presence on the level of the characters are possible?
    • Heterodiegetic: 3rd person storytelling
    • Homodiegetic: the narrator has to be at least a witness of the action (i saw, i did ...)
    • Autodiagetic: main protagonist is telling the story
  83. What degrees of explicitness of narrators are there?
    • Overt: narrator is a concrete persona, seems tangible
    • Covert: anonymus voice, appears to be neutral
  84. What is an APOSTROPHY in the context of narration?
    Change of Level from the story to a story within a story -> CLIFFHANGER makes you aware that you´re reading a story within a story and get´s you back up to the level before
  85. What is a FOCALISER?
    • corresponds to the reflector of Stanzel
    • the non-verbal perception of the fictional world (thoughts, feelings, memories, sensory perceptions)
  86. What types of Focalization are there?
    • Zero Focalization: no limits, focalization of everything, in stanzel: authorial narrator
    • External Focalization: neutral narrator, who registers what is visible, camera-eye technique
    • Internal Focalizer: modernism, focus moves, one or several characters, within the mind of character/s
  87. What´s the relation between Narration and Focalization?
    The NARRATOR says that the FOCALIZER sees waht the AGENT/CHARACTER is doing. Bal. 2009

    • if all is in one, than it´s first person narration
    • telling is dominated by narrator
    • showing is dominated by focalizer
  88. Comparison of STANZEL and GENETTE for Narrative discourse
    • Stanzel: good overview for best known types, but contradictory when specific
    • Genette: more systematic with internal logic, but doesn´t tell us what´s typical and what not
  89. Representing Consciousness

    What is figural narration?
    a heterodiegetic narrator, trying to reproduce the impressions of an internal focaliser (a panda longing for his eucalyptus)
  90. Name the types of figural narration (5)
    • Genette: heterodiagetic, covert, implicit, emphasis on showing, internal focalization
    • Psycho-narration: presence of a narrator, 3rd person pronouns, verbs of speaking and vision
    • free indirect discourse: reader inside the characters mind, no one is telling, reader is being shown events
    • interior monologue: highly mimetic form of presenting consciousness, impression of complete immediacy(unfiltered)(james joyce)
  91. name the types of signals of an unreliabel Narrator
    • within the narrated world
    • signals of narrated discourse
    • linguistic indicators - the language
  92. What´s characteristic for unreliable narration within the narrated world?
    • narrator has no respect for other human beings
    • difference between words and deeds
    • madness
  93. What´s characteristic for unreliable narrative discourse?
    • i-fixation
    • disrupted train of thought
    • gaps
    • memory problems
    • doesn´t mention topics that could contradict the opinion
    • claims to be mad
  94. Linguistic indicators of unreliable narration?
    • emotionality
    • exclamations and euphemisms
    • frequent apostrophe (=adressing another speaker)
    • struggle to convince the reader
  95. What are the 4 stages of Film production?
    • script
    • staging action
    • shooting the film
    • editing the film
  96. Name the Camera Scales (8)
    • extreme longshot: shot of landscape, usually to introduce new scenery
    • longshot: character as whole, with surrounding objects
    • medium longshot: head to knee
    • medium shot: 2 people
    • medium closeup: heads + torso
    • extreme closeup: focus on one detail
    • american shot: 3/4 shot, usually a couple of gunslingers
  97. Name available Camera angles:
    • eye level
    • frogs perspective
    • birdseye
  98. Name available cameramovements:
    • pan: horizontal rotation
    • tilt: vertical rotation
    • trackshot: camera moved on tracks (matrix)
    • moved on crane:
    • steadycam:
    • handheld camera:
    • camera zooms:
  99. What is Mise-en-scene?
    • audio-visualization of the narrative
    • the phase of showing the events
  100. What´s the Eye-Line Convention?
    2 shot´s of the person looking at something, and a shot between those with the object
  101. What´s the 180 degree rule?
    in a conversation between two characters, the camera never crosses a 180 degree line between the characters
Card Set
EK Literary Studies
Litstud intro