AP World- Ch.17 Vocab

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  1. Niccolo Machiavelli
    Author of The Prince (16th century); emphasized realistic discussions of how to seize and maintain power; one of most influential authors of Italian
  2. Renaissance
    Cultural and political movement in western Europe; began in Italy c. 1400; rested on urban vitality and expanding commerce; featured a literature and art with distinctly more secular priorities than those of the Middle Ages
  3. Humanism
    Focus on humankind as center of intellectual and artistic endeavor; method of study that emphasized the superiority of classical forms over medieval styles, in particular the study of ancient languages
  4. European style farming
  5. Johannes Gutenberg
    Introduced movable type to western Europe in 15th century; credited with greatly expanded availability of printed books and pamphlets
  6. Protestantism
    General wave of religious dissent against Catholic church; generally held to have begun with Martin Luther's attack on Catholic beliefs in 1517; included many varieties of religious belief
  7. Anglican Church
    Form of Protestantism set up in England after 1534; established by Henry VIII with himself as head at least in part to obtain a divorce from his first wife; became increasingly Protestant following Henry's death
  8. Jean Calvin
    French Protestant (16th century) who stressed doctrine of predestination; established center of his group at Swiss canton of Geneva; encouraged ideas of wider access to government, wider public education; Calvinism spread from Switzerland to northern Europe and North America
  9. Catholic Reformation
    Restatement of traditional Catholic beliefs in response to Protestant Reformation (16th century); established councils that revived Catholic doctrine and refuted Protestant beliefs
  10. Jesuits
    A new religious order founded during the Catholic Reformation; active in politics, education, and missionary work; sponsored missions to South America, North American and Asia.
  11. Edict of Nantes
    Grant of tolerance to Protestants in France in 1598; granted only after lengthy civil war between Catholic and Protestant factions
  12. Thirty Years’ War
    War within the Holy Roman Empire between German Protestants and their allies (Sweden, Denmark, France) and the emperor and his ally, Spain; ended in 1648 after great destruction with Treaty of Westphalia
  13. Treaty of Westphalia
    Ended Thirty Years' War in 1648; granted right to individual rulers within the Holy Roman Empire to choose their own religion–either Protestant or Catholic
  14. English Civil War
    Conflict from 1640 to 1660; featured religious disputes mixed with constitutional issues concerning the powers of the monarchy; ended with restoration of the monarchy in 1660 following execution of previous king
  15. Proletariat
    Class of working people without access to producing property; typically manufacturing workers, paid laborers in agricultural economy, or urban poor; in Europe, product of economic changes of 16th and 17th centuries
  16. Scientific Revolution
    Culminated in 17th century; period of empirical advances associated with the development of wider theoretical generalizations; resulted in change in traditional beliefs of Middle Ages
  17. Copernicus
    Polish monk and astronomer (16th century); disproved Hellenistic belief that the earth was at the center of the universe
  18. Galileo
    Published Copernicus's findings (17th century); added own discoveries concerning laws of gravity and planetary motion; condemned by the Catholic church for his work
  19. John Harvey
    English physician (17th century) who demonstrated circular movement of blood in animals, function of heart as pump
  20. Rene Descartes
    Established importance of skeptical review of all received wisdom (17th century); argued that human reason could then develop laws that would explain the fundamental workings of nature
  21. Isaac Newton
    English scientist during the 17th century; author of Principia; drew the various astronomical and physical observations and wider theories together in a neat framework of natural laws; established principles of motion; defined forces of gravity
  22. John Locke
    English philosopher during 17th century; argued that people could learn everything through senses; argued that power of government came from the people, not divine right of kings; offered possibility of revolution to overthrow tyrants
  23. Absolute monarchy
    Concept of government developed during rise of nation-states in western Europe during the 17th century; featured monarchs who passed laws without parliaments, appointed professionalized armies and bureaucracies, established state churches, imposed state economic policies
  24. Louis XIV
    French monarch of the late 17th century who personified absolute monarchy
  25. Glorious Revolution
    English overthrow of James II in 1688; resulted in affirmation of parliament as having basic sovereignty over the king
  26. Parliamentary monarchy
    Originated in England and Holland, 17th century, with kings partially checked by significantly legislative powers in parliaments
  27. Frederick the Great
    Prussian king of the 18th century; attempted to introduce Enlightenment reforms into Germany; built on military and bureaucratic foundations of his predecessors; introduced freedom of religion; increased state control of economy.
  28. Adam Smith
    Established liberal economics (Wealth of Nations, 1776); argued that government should avoid regulation of economy in favor of the operation of market forces
  29. Mary Wollstonecraft
    Enlightenment feminist thinker in England; argued that new political rights should extend to women
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AP World- Ch.17 Vocab
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