Drug Analysis

  1. The three types of detectors used with Gas Chromatograpy systems.
    MS - mass spectrometers ( #1 used)

    FID - flame ionization detectors

    IR - infrared detectors
  2. What is forensic science?
    application of science to law

    the science of associating people, places, and things invoved in criminal activity

    The use of science or technology in the investigation and establishment of facts or evidence in a court of law
  3. Locard's Exchange Principle

    What does it state?
    with every contact between 2 items there will be an exchange
  4. What rule for scientific testimony did Frye VS United States establish?
    The general acceptance rule.

    Determines the admissibility of scientific evidence in court.
  5. Name the duties of a forensic scientist.
    Collect, analyze, and maintain chain of custody of evidence

    Draw conclusions and issue reports based on the findings.

    Testify in court
  6. Besides drugs, name 3 disciplines within forensic science


    Crime scene processing

    Firearms and toolmarks
  7. True or False

    Class characteristics are unique and can be used to make an identification.

    Individual Characteristics
  8. Minimum trafficking weight for marihuana.
    OVER 2.2lbs
  9. Most abused substance over the millennia.
  10. True or False

    Smoking is the most common way marihuana is used.
  11. Three test most commonly used to analyze marihuana.
    visual examination

    microscopic examination

    Duquenois-Levine test
  12. What are dicotyledons?
    the seed leaves or 1st leaves on a marihuana plant
  13. Name the hair on a MJ leaf that has a calcium carbonate deposite on its base.
    Cystolithic hairs
  14. Define


    What is in the sample

    The amount of a specific componenet in a sample
  15. The 2 advantages of temperature programming of GC
    improved resolution

    accelerated analysis time
  16. Define

    Maintaining a constant temperature
  17. 2 advantages of capillary columns over packed columns
    1.greater # of theoretical plates(this results in better seperation and sharper peaks)

    2.better sensitivity

    3.less column bleed
  18. Name the 3 causes of peak broadening in packed columns
    1.lower # of theoretical plates

    2.the need for a larger sample to be used

    3. the column must be conditioned
  19. What are the 2 requirements for an analyte to be seperated be GC?
    must be volitile

    must be soluble in an organic solvent
  20. What is retention time ?
    the time the sample is inside the GC
  21. What are the 2 best carrier gases for GC?
    Hydrogen and Helium
  22. Primary pupose of the injection port?
    vaporize the sample
  23. What are the 3 functions of the injection port?
    vaporize the sample

    receives the sample

    delivers the vaporized material to the head of the column
  24. What are some advantages of using MS?
    The technique is very sensitive.

    The identification is very specific.
  25. What are some requirements for temperature programming?
    Must be indenpendent heaters for the detector, injector, and the oven that will maintain a constant temperature

    Must be insulated from the outside and other heated zones

    It must be reproducible so that the retention times can be reproduced.
  26. What is a chromatogram?
    A machine that can take a substance and seperate it into all the components it is made of (pizza)
  27. Basic components of the MS system
    sample inlet system/ ionization / ion seperation / ion detection / amplification / data handling
  28. How many eV (electron volts) are usually used to ionize samples in MS?
  29. Do you measure positive or negative ions when using a MS?
    Positive, because the # of negative ions are too low in contrast to the positive ions.
  30. Define

    the male and female organs are normally manifested on seperate plants ( you see this on marihuana plants )
  31. What is the full botanical name for marihuana?
    Cannabis sativa L
  32. What does the L in the botanical name of marihuana refer to?
    The L refers to the 1st person, a Swedish naturalist Linneaus, to classify marihuana.

    • Carl von Linne
    • Often refered to as the father of the binomial system of nomenclature.
  33. What is the primary psychoactive ingredient in marihuana?
    tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)
  34. True or False

    There is only 1 member of the genus Cannabis.

    There is only 1 species of marihuana, Cannabis sativa L
  35. True or False

    Cannabinoids can be found in other plants besides marihuana.

    • Cannabinoids are the major classifications of THC.
    • THC is a chemical unique to MJ
  36. What is the most important piece of information that may be obtained from a mass spectrum?
    The molecular weight of the compound
  37. How many electrons are lost to form the molecular ion?
  38. How does derivitization of a sample change GC analysis?
    It will increase the volatility of the solute

    It will decrease cloumn absorption

    It will improve seperation
  39. What is one disadvantage associated with using a direct insertion probe?
    Thermal decomposition may take place with certain molecules
  40. What is a base peak?
    The highest peak shown on a MS

    The most intense ion in the spectrum
  41. True or False

    The molecular ion is always the base peak.

    They can be the same peak in some instances but not in all
  42. What is resolution in GC?
    the ability of the GC to seperate two components into seperate peaks
  43. What is resolution in MS?
    the ability of the MS to seperate the ions in a compound
  44. What is the main advantage of a quadropole mass fiter?
    the fast scan speed
  45. Name 2 types of biological evidence
    Blood / Semen / Saliva
  46. Name 2 types of trace evidence
    Hair / fibers / soil / glass
  47. What are the 3 classes of fingerprints?
    arch / loop / whorl
  48. What are the individual characteristics of fingerprints called?
  49. What are some of the tools (non-instrumental) used by forensic scientist?
    Balances / Microscopes
  50. What is a drug?
    a substance other than food intended to affect the structure or function of the body
  51. What are 2 of the historical themes of drug use?
    The need of humans to cope with their environment and existence

    Government and business involvement in selling and taxing drugs
  52. What are 3 reasons people use drugs?
    reduce pain / alter mood / medicate a mental illness
  53. Name 6 methods used to introduce drugs into the body.
    • 1.Drink
    • 2.Absorb
    • 3.Inhale
    • 4.Inject
    • 5.Snort
    • 6.Smoke
  54. Around 1855, what invention helped to spur an increase in the abuse of opiates?
    The hypodermic needle

    This way the drug could be placed directly in the bloodstream causing a more intense effect
  55. In what year was the Controlled Substance Act established?
  56. Who isolated cocaine from the coca plant, and in what year?
    Albert Nieman / 1859
  57. What are the 5 bases for classifying drugs as schedule I, II...etc?
    • 1.abuse potential
    • 2.value as a medication
    • 3.history of use and abuse
    • 4.risk to public health
    • 5.political considerations
  58. True or False

    Drugs in Schedule I have no legitimate medical use and a high abuse potential.
  59. True or False

    Occasionally due to environmental factors, male and female flowers can occur on the same plant (in marihuana)

    this is called monocious
  60. List 5 characteristics of the marihuana leaf.
    • 1.palmate
    • 2.edges are serrated
    • 3.they have a midrib vein that runs the lenght of the leaflet
    • 4.Upper side of the leaf is dark green / Lower side of the leaf is a lighter green
    • 5.leaves contain an odd # of leaflets
    • 6.contain cystolithic hairs
  61. What type of root system does marihuana have?
    It consist of a main tap root, 11 - 14' long, with a layer of very fine lateral roots.
  62. Which part of the MJ plant is not controlled?
    The root
  63. What is the prominent ridge around the surface of a marihuana seed?
  64. Name 2 cannabinoids besides THC.
    • Cannibinol
    • Cannabidiol
  65. What are the 2 naming systems used to name TCH?
    • dibenzopyran (delta 9 symbol)
    • monoterpenoid (delta 1 symbol)
  66. True or False

    The Duquenois - Levine test is specific for THC.

    It indicates that canabinoids are present.
  67. What color test is used for MJ?
    The Duquenois - Levine color test
  68. What are the ingredients used to make the Duquenois-Levine reagent?
    • Ethyl alcohol
    • Vanillin
    • Acetaldehyde
  69. How does the Duquenois - Levine test work chemically?
    The electrophyllic attack by vanillin on the phenolic ring of the cannabinoids
  70. What are the main components of the GC?
    • Carrier Gas
    • Injection port
    • Oven
    • Column
    • Detector
    • Recorder
  71. Define sensitivity
    the ablity to detect or see a compound
  72. What are the 3 major peaks in the cocaine mass spectrum?
    82 / 182 / 303
  73. Name two legitimate uses for MJ.
    Hemp / bird seed / oil for paint
  74. Schedule for MJ
  75. Schedule for cocaine
  76. Schedule for methamphetamine
  77. Schedule for hydrocodone
  78. Schedule for hydrocodone + acetaminophen
  79. Schedule for carisoprodol (soma)
  80. Schedule for oxycodone
  81. Schedule for oxycodone + acetaminophen
Card Set
Drug Analysis
Test 1