1. Systematics
    -study of kinds of diversity of organisms and of any and all relationships
  2. Taxonomy
    -science of naming and classifying organism
  3. Phylogeny
    -evolutionary history of organisms and relationships
  4. Phylogenetic tree
    • -organisms closer to each other share several traits
    • -apormorphic characters most important
  5. Plesiomorphic character
    - ancestral trait
  6. Apomorphic character
    -derived trait
  7. Homology
    -similarities of traits due to common descent
  8. Convergent evolution
    Homoplasy-not due to common ancestory
  9. Evolutionary Reversals
    - an evolved trait can be reverted back to original trait IE wingless--wings--wingless
  10. Ways to organize
    • Morphology, anatomical, developmental
    • Molecular traits
    • Determining polarity (ancestral or derived)
  11. Ingroup
    - closely related for comparison
  12. Outgroup
    -group closely related to the ingroup but branched off before ingroup evolve
  13. Synapopmorphy
    -shared derived character
  14. Clade
    - contains most recent common ancestor
  15. Parsimony
    • -simplest tree is the best
    • requires few homoplasies in tree
    • Occams razor-best fits data w/ least assumptions
  16. Classification
    -arrangement of in the taxonomic groups based on characteristics to define the group

    International Code of Zoological Nomenclature
  17. Natural classification
    -true relationships or what seems to be true about evolutionary traits b/w organisms
  18. Linnaeus- 1758
    • Systema Naturae
    • 7ranks (taxon taxa)
    • K P C O F G S
    • Binomial nomenclature
    • -ideae--family
    • -aceae--family
    • plants
  19. Monophyletic
    -all descendents of common ancestor
  20. Paraphyletic
    -most recent common ancestor of some descendentsbut not all
  21. Polyphyletic
    • -don’t share immediate common ancestor Two separate evolutionary lines
    • Not accepted in world of science
  22. phylogenetic systematics (cladistics)
    • based on common descent of organisms
    • taxonomic grouping based solely monophyly
  23. evolutionary systematics
    basedon degree of evolutionary changes taxonomic grouping accepts monophyly and paraphyly
  24. numerical taxonomy (phenetics)
    • based on overall similarity of characteristics in organisms each traits carries same weight
    • mono-/para-phyly are not in consideration phenograms
  25. Phylogenetic trees
    • --How diseases are transmitted and evolved
    • --Dating lineages split
    • --Answer questions about adaptive radiation Chichlid fishes
    • --Reconstruct the past-presence of aids in NA
    • --Compare and contrast living organisms-long sword vs short; mating bias
    • --Ancestral states can be reconstructed—IE proteins
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