1. The way in which information is processed and manipulated in remembering, thinking, and knowing
  2. Involves manipulating information mentally by forming concepts, solving problems, making decisions, and reflecting in a critical or creative manner.
  3. mental categories that are used to group objects, events, and characteristics.
  4. First, concepts allow us to _____; without them, each object and event in our world would be unique and brand new to us each time.
  5. Second, concepts allow us to ______ / compare experiences and objects.
  6. Concepts aid _____ by making it more efficient so that we do not have to reinvent the wheel each time
  7. Concepts provide ______ about how to react to a particular object or experience.
  8. The ________ model emphasizes that when people evaluate whether a given item reflects a certain concept, they compare the item with the most typical item(s) in
    • that category and look for a “family resemblance” with that item's properties.
    • Prototypes
  9. ___________ means finding an appropriate way to attain a goal when the goal is not readily available
    Problem solving
  10. _________ involves setting intermediate goals or defining intermediate problems that put us in a better position for reaching the final goal or solution.
  11. ________ are strategies that guarantee a solution to a problem
  12. ___________ come in different forms, such as formulas, instructions, and the testing of all possible solutions
  13. ____________ are such shortcut strategies or guidelines that suggest a solution to a problem but do not guarantee an answer
  14. In the real world, we are more likely to solve the types of problems we face by ______ than by _____.
    heuristics than by algorithms
  15. Heuristics help us to narrow down the possible__________ and to find one that works.
  16. ____________ involves using a prior strategy and failing to look at a problem from a fresh, new perspective
  17. ________________occurs when individuals fail to solve a problem because they are fixated on a thing's usual functions
    Functional fixedness
  18. _______________ is the mental activity of transforming information to reach conclusions.
  19. __________________ involves reasoning from specific observations to make generalizations
    Inductive reasoning
  20. A great deal of_________________ is the product of inductive reasoning
    scientific knowledge
  21. ____________ is reasoning from a general case that we know to be true to a specific instance
    deductive reasoning
  22. __________________ involves evaluating alternatives and choosing among them.
    Decision making
  23. _________ bias is the tendency to search for and use information that supports our ideas rather than refutes them
  24. __________ bias is our tendency to report falsely, after the fact, that we accurately predicted an outcome.
  25. ________ heuristic refers to a prediction about the probability of an event based on the ease of recalling or imagining similar events
  26. The tendency to ignore information about general principles in favor of very specific but vivid
    Base rate fallacy
  27. The_____________ heuristic is to make judgments about group membership based on physical appearances or the stereotype of a group instead of available base rate
  28. ______________ means thinking reflectively and productively and evaluating the evidence
    Critical thinking
  29. being alert and mentally present for one's everyday activities.
  30. being receptive to other ways of looking at things

    • a characteristic of a person, the ability to think about something in novel and unusual ways and to devise unconventional solutions to problems
    • Creativity
  31. produces many solutions to the same problem.
    Divergent thinking
  32. produces the single best solution to a problem
    Convergent thinking
  33. True or false: creative thinkers do mostly divergent thinking
    False: both
  34. when a group of people openly throw out a range of possible solutions to a problem, even some that might seem crazy
  35. ____ thinking occurs doing brainstorming
    Divergent thinking
  36. ________ moods are associated with narrow, analytical thinking
Card Set
Chapter 7