1. Agarian
    Having to do with, or relating to, farming and its processes. Many civilizations, such as the Romans or Egyptians, used agrarian methods to produce food.
  2. Alphabet
    Having to do with, or relating to, farming and its processes. Many civilizations, such as the Romans or Egyptians, used agrarian methods to produce food.
  3. Animism
    Having to do with, or relating to, farming and its processes. Many civilizations, such as the Romans or Egyptians, used agrarian methods to produce food.
  4. Arable
    Having to do with, or relating to, farming and its processes. Many civilizations, such as the Romans or Egyptians, used agrarian methods to produce food.
  5. Aristocracy
    Having to do with, or relating to, farming and its processes. Many civilizations, such as the Romans or Egyptians, used agrarian methods to produce food.
  6. Artisan
    A skilled artist or craftsman, such as a musician or sculptor. Egyptian artisans created many bright and lively pictures, which decorated tombs and palaces in Egypt.
  7. Autocracy
    A skilled artist or craftsman, such as a musician or sculptor. Egyptian artisans created many bright and lively pictures, which decorated tombs and palaces in Egypt.
  8. Barbarian
    A skilled artist or craftsman, such as a musician or sculptor. Egyptian artisans created many bright and lively pictures, which decorated tombs and palaces in Egypt.

    A skilled artist or craftsman, such as a musician or sculptor. Egyptian artisans created many bright and lively pictures, which decorated tombs and palaces in Egypt.
  9. Bureacracy/ Administation instituion
    an administrative group that makes policies for the government. When agriculture became present bureaucracy came into the role as the leader of the tribe/group or the one that is in the highest position in the hiearchy made the policies, however hunters and gatherers usually made these policies as a whole rather than having one elected head to make the policies for the whole group. This influenced many early civilizations and helped to develop more complex structures of government.
  10. Caste System
    A binding social system that determines one's "worth" or "power" based on heritage. In India, regardless of what a person looked like or accomplished in life, the caste system fitted them into a role which they would be forever viewed as. Those who were lucky to be born into a high caste received privileged lives. Those born into a low caste obtained a bad life.
  11. Centralized Government
    A form of government in which all of the decisions are made by the federal government and most of the power is held by one branch.This relates to history because after the invention of farming, societies became more and more complex. This led to the first cities, and then central governments. Complex institutions (the category that centralized government falls under) is also one of the five things needed in order to create a civilization.
  12. city-states
    an area where there is a civilization that is independent from outside governments.The oldest known city-state is Mesopotamia, located right around the Tigris-Euphrates rivers.
  13. Civilization
    Civilization: an advance in the human nature that included; culture, science, industry, and government. It allowed people to interact with one another and with other groups. A society which has attained a common culture with highly developed political and social institutionsThe romans had an advanced civilization with a centralized government and various religions.
  14. Codification
    Codification- the process of making a lawThe codification of the Hammurabi code establishedd rules of procedure for courts of law.
  15. Coercive Labor
    Is the enslavement of people who then are forced to do work due to the lack of people already working. An example would be how agriculture needed more people so farmers would enslave their neighbors to work for them.
  16. Complex systems/ complex instituions
    is the subject of a diverse variety of sciences and professional methodsHistorical meaning: shows the development of societies, innovation, and geographical movement of societies. Gov. democracy government makes executive decisions about monumental structures.
  17. Corvee
    Corvée - When you're forced work without pay by the king or government.The historical significance of corvée, a form of slavery, it helped the government with projects, such as preventing ways to stop the Nile River from flooding. It was mainly used in feudal societies, where a political system of power dispersed and balanced between king and nobles, such as the Roman Empire.
  18. Courage Culture
    A group of kin-related people.Mongolians are Courage Cultures that owns an animal and has somewhat common ancestry. Courage Culture is important because in the past, each groups had limited the ability of tribes from working together.
  19. Cultural Diffusion
    The spreading of a peoples culture to others by means of movement and travel. Cultural diffusion is responsible for the spread of Egyptian deities, such as Isis, into Greek and Roman cultures.
  20. Cuneiform
    Cuneiform is a written script that developed in ancient Mesopotamia. It contains wedge-shaped symbols and is the first known writing system.Cuneiform is significant because, to our knowledge, it was the first form of written expression. As agricultural societies in Mesopotamia advanced, the creation of Cuneiform effectively allowed people to communicate with each other and easily record economic activity. It also expanded to the Middle East where it was used as a basis for new systems.
  21. Deforestation:
    -the cutting down of trees in a forest by humans until there is no more forest:Trees greatly influenced the prehistoric people. Forests provided foods like nuts and fruit as well as meat. Also, many useful products were created from trees like hand tools, weapons, boats, and shelters. If they cut down all the trees, then they would have been forced to move to another area. However, if a particular group of people was stranded on an island and they used up all of the trees present, they would not have been able to leave the island because of the fact that they couldn't build a boat. This is what happened to the people who inhabited the Pacific so many years ago
  22. Diety
    Deity - god or godessHistorical Significance: religious people worshiped their deity(ies)to have faith and belief in what they do in their life.
  23. Democracy
    Democracy:A government system in which the power lies in the hands of the people. Comes from Greek terms meaning "the people" and "to rule."Athens began democracy in the 6th Century B.C. around the Mediterranean Sea. They viewed dictatorship as the worst form of government during that time period, so they made a form of government that was the complete opposite. Greeks Greeks broke the civilizations into small "states" of about 10,000 people per state, and each person was part of the law making body. Even though women and slaves made up about 50% of the population, they were not allowed to vote. Despite this fact, Greeks were the closest to get to a democracy.
  24. Demography
    Demography is the scientific study of how social interactions influences a groups' population.An archeologist named Mark Cohen (Noble or Savage) suggested that agriculture was started because of desperation by studying the increase in the population density after the Fertile Crescent.
  25. Desertification
    Desertification - When an area of land turns into a desert over time.The historical significance of desertification is when a group of people would stay in one area for a long period of time, they could cause desertification depending on the geographic region that they're in. They can cause desertification by having too many livestock on too little land, and this takes part of the removal of vegetation on the land.
  26. Dhows
    Dhows were boats that were used for sailing across bodies of water and were created by the Arab people. These boats were used by people who lived in the middle eastern part of Asia when they moved to different parts of the continent to spread and create more civilizations.
  27. Diaspora
    Diaspora- People spreading out from their original location. (dispersing/scattering) Historical Reference- In 70 A.D, Romans began to force Jews out who have lived there for thousands of years. This was called Diaspora. Not long after, most Jews and Hebrews were scattered all across, Africa, Asia, and Europe. This also increased the distribution and spread of these religions.
  28. Disseminators
    Disseminators are the factors in the spread/distribution of ideas.An example of a disseminator during the Paleolithic time period would be a pastoralist because they invented tools and improved their way of life to adapt to their environment. They were constantly mobile which allowed them to spread their ideas and ideas they obtained from others to whoever they encounter.
  29. Domestication
    taming or adapting wild animals or plants to be used for human purposesDomestication is significant because it really marks the start of the change from hunter-gatherer societies to farming and herding societies. The biggest change here is that instead of being reliant on the environment to provide food, people began to change the environment to adapt to their own needs.
  30. Dynasty
    A sequence of rulers from the same family.Historic Significance: Dynasty's have been a long time trend in China and have become a large part of the Chinese culture.
  31. Egalitarian
    equality between people, especially men and womenThis is historically significant because equality affected political, economic, social, and cultural characteristics of a group of people, and the differences in egalitarianism emphasize the changes a society undergoes over time. For example, hunters and gatherers started out relatively egalitarian, but as groups began to settle down, hunt smaller game, and farm, inequality between men and women became more prominent.
  32. empire
    A group of countries under one supreme authority.Roman Empire, for example, allowed local customs and religion and the laws hold the empire together.
  33. Epidemic
    Epidemic- A disease that's contagious in a community for a given period of time. Epidemic- Epidemics are significant because of the many outbreaks there was in history. Outbreaks that killed millions of people worldwide, because of the rise in development of cities where there were large amounts of people living in a condense area. Not only did the outbreaks effect population but as well as growth of the victimized area and the annual income due to people being sick and not able to work.
  34. Filial Piety
    Conisdered as one of the first and most important virtue of Confucian Ideals. It means to respect your elders such as parents and ancestors. This philosophy was taken and accepted throughout asia and also played part in the policies of political structures.
  35. Hegemony
    When the leader-state rules the sub-ordinate states by power rather than 'military' force The culture with the better economy and organized-central government usually had the 'power' over others. Since they were more prepared it made them more stable than the others who were struggling to survive. Usually the better developed group of people controlled factors like factors like trade, since they contained better resources, routes of transportation, advanced weapons, etc. Which gave them the advantage of the others. The Roman Empire, when they would ivade enemy territory, they would defeat their 'army' and gain control of their government meaning they could access their set of resources, weapons, people, etc.
  36. Hieroglyphs
    Hieroglyphs- A picture representing several wordsThe Egyptians had hieroglyphics although their alphabet was not as advanced as the Sumerians'.
  37. Hunter-Gatherer
    Hunter-gatherers: were a group of people who went hunting and gathering for survival, weapons, agriculture, and items. They expanded the use of agriculture, and settled in greater areas to live in.
  38. Indigenous
    Native in origin to a region. Examples of indigenous people are the Ainu of Japan and the Aboriginals of Australia.
  39. Lateen sail
    the set of triangular sails on a boat:The lateen sails were an invention that eased travel via water. Instead of having to sit in canoes and row, humans could just let the wind blow against the sails and push the boat in that direction. Of course, this method could only be used when their was enough wind to push the boats.
  40. Maritime:
    (adj.) to have to do with the seaPhoenicians were the first maritime travelers, who traveled along the Mediterranean sea and spread culture and different ways of life to coastal countries.
  41. Matriarchal
    When women are in charge. Matriarchal is important to history and culture because it describes the roles and foundations of different genders in a society. In a matriarchal society, women have the central leadership or authority role, such as some societies in South Africa.
  42. Matrilineal
    When the family line goes through the mother. The historical significance of matrilineality is that ancestors through history can be traced through the female line; it also shows that some cultures strongly believe in the importance of females in their society. For example, surnames are handed down from mother to daughter in matrilineal cultures.
  43. Metallurgy
    Metallurgy- Working with metalHistorical Reference- Metallurgy is a very old technique dating back to 7000 B.C; the age of copper. People began to construct very primitive knives and sickles. 3000 B.C. is when these tools start to be of use because metal lasted much longer than stone and people started constructing iron to hunt, farm, and many other basic needs.
  44. Migration
    Moving from one region to another.Bantu migration patterns in Sub-Saharan Africa caused cultural diffusion throughout the region. Thus migration is significant in the widespread distribution of ideas and culture.
  45. Monastic Life
    Living under religious vows (monks and nuns are examples). This relates to history because the chief agents of Buddhist expansion and leadership were monks.
  46. Monotheism
    Monotheism- Monotheism is the idea or belief of worshipping one single God rather than multiple gods. Historical Reference- There are many forms of Monotheism, but the three main religions are Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Beginning in the present Middle-East, monotheism originated in Judaism, which is the oldest of the three major religions. Then, it later spread across all of Eurasia and eventually the Americas.
  47. Monumental architecture
    - architectural forms that symbolize power and authority.Historical meaning: the architecture during the B.C.E time period showed power and authority for each civilization and the urbanization of those societies Historical meaning: Architecture, pyramid, zegrats, political religious structure in society
  48. Neolithic
    Neolithic: the new age/era in which agriculture occured. It was important because people had more food. They didn't move alot of places after agriculture occurred.
  49. Nomadic
    People who migrate from place to place There are estimated 30-40 million nomads in the world. Many cultures were nomadic, traveling from place to place because they would follow the animals for food (nomadic hunting) or move to places where the evironment provided better resources for them. Pastoral nomads were known for this because they would live through their animals. They would travel all over the world for better needs, such as food, water, etc., to comfort their animals.
  50. Oligarchy
    A government system in which all power is held by a few of the dominant people in that country. Comes from the Greek terms "few" and "rule."Not a very common form of government.Spring and Autumn Era and Warring States Period in Chinese history; Political power belonged to either warlords or a group of nobles.Caste Oligarchy: Passed through bloodElected Oligarchy: A democracy where the few rulers are elected into the government by the people.
  51. Oracle
    An oracle is something or someone that is believed to have a connection to higher power, usually a religious figure. People often go to an oracle to seek advice and/or predictions.Religion was an important aspect in societies during the Paleolithic period. Life was unstable and unpredictable due to environmental factors and many believed higher power, such as gods, was either the cause and/or solution to their problems. To communicate with them, they used oracles for advice and prophecies which influence their actions and emotions when they receive them, such as doing a certain task or feeling relief.
  52. Paleolithic
    Paleolithic - old stone ageHistorical Significance: Some paleolithic achievements were thecontrol of fire and tools made of flint of bone.
  53. Pastoralist
    People who own livestock.This relates when they discovered farming and the domestiction of animals came along. Because of this they had a surplus of food. They even had extra food that they could trade. They eventually found out that not everyone had to farm which opened up room for others to find different jobs.
  54. Pathogens
    a microorganism, which could be a bacterium or virus that causes diseases or sicknesses in animals/humans/plants. During the Neolithic time period, pathogens started to become a big problem. They caused disease in the people and crops because of the closer proximities that people were living in.
  55. Patricarchal
    Patriarchal- men arein chargeHistorical Significance: contains exploitation that affects the womensposition in society.
  56. Patrician
    A person of high rank or noble status. The shaman of a tribe was an early form of a patrician. Medicine men/women were also religious leaders. As tribes grew, a need for a political leader grew as well. To distinguish the haves from the have not.
  57. Patrilineal
    Family line that goes through the father Generally involved the inheritance of property, names, or titles through the male line. For example, in Mesopotamia, when a new child was born it would inherit their name and eventually gain his father's title, resources, and property to make better use of it and later pass it down to his child.
  58. Pax Romana
    the height of the Roman Empire, from the time Augustus Caesar took over (27 B.C.E.) until the death of Marcus Aurelius (180 C.E.)The Pax Romana is historically significant because Rome’s power was at its peak, and Rome was able to conquer a majority of the Mediterranean area as its military grew in size and strength. During this time, Rome also developed political and cultural ideas that still remain with us today, such as law codes, citizenship, art, and literature.
  59. Peasant
    A member of a class of low social status.Low-caste individuals and servants were considered peasants in the caste system of the Indian civilization where people are placed into ranks (castes) within their society in order to determine their social status in comparison to others.
  60. Pictographs
    A detailed diagram that uses symbols to represent both the object being recorded and its value.Many early civilizations used pictures and symbols for communication purposes such as the Lascaux France cave painting which portrayed animals of the Paleolithic age.
  61. Polis
    Polis- An city-state that controls nearby territory.Polis is huge due to the fact there wouldn't be any capitals or political structures in the world. Polis were created in order to control and stabilized huge populations or cities.
  62. Polygamy
    Being able to have more than one wife or husband.Historical Significance: In Hammurabi's Law Code, polygamy is illegal.
  63. Polytheism
    Believing in two or more religious deities. In many ancient cultures polytheism was present because the people chose to believe that there was a "spirit" or "god" for every thing that they had. Ex: Spirit of the Trees and Spirit of the Cattle
  64. Province
    A territory governed as an individual division or unit of a country or empire.Each civilization can be considered its own province, for example, the Mesopotamian civilizations may each be considered as an individual province since they would be considered divisions of Mesopotamia as a whole.
  65. Qanat System
    The Qanat system was used in the middle eastern parts of Asia and was a way to bring water to regions that were considerably dry. People would create several underground tunnels for the water to flow through usually from mountains to very dry places. This system was used in the Middle East when humans expanded into those regions and when civilizations started forming, they needed a way to bring water to the region so it could be used for agriculture and farming.
  66. Quipu
    Quipu is a method of recording information used by the Incas which involved an intricate placement of knots along strings.Quipu serves as an example of one of the many technological advancements made by earlier civilizations in order to make a task easier. For example, the Incas using quipu for storing information such as a census, along with their financial records.
  67. Republic
    A state or government in which it is ruled by representatives whom are voted for by citizens of the state or government.Historic Significance: Brought forth the principle of a people run government as opposed to an almighty ruler. This shaped many governments in the centuries following.

    Type of government in which the citizens vote for representatives that run the nation/country.Historical Significance: The Roman Republic allowed citizens to participate in major decisions.
  68. Secular
    Pertaining to worldly matters or those not of religious significance.The Chinese civilization may be considered a civilization whose culture is based on secular beliefs. This is due to the fact that, although rulers did maintain belief in a god or gods, leaders stressed the importance of a harmonious earthly life, which would maintain a proper balance between earth and heaven.
  69. Self-sufficient
    Able to provide nessasary resources for ones self.Hunter Gatherers must be self-sufficient to survive in their surroundings
  70. Shamanism
    An anamistic religion in which a priest communicates and effects the spirit world.Shamans in central Asia perform rituals to interact with spirits
  71. Silted Rivers
    Silted Rivers - Earthy matter and sand that is deposited as a sediment as a river.The historical significance of silted rivers is a silted river can affect how the crops come out, because of things like clay and sand can damage crops.Silt blocks flow of water so you can't irrigate crops, and no crops mean no food.
  72. Social Stratification/ Hierarchical Structures
    The process of a society becoming more complex with diversification of jobs.This relates because they were straying away from being hunter-gatherers to becoming farmers as they discovered they could controle plant growth. This led to everyone having different jobs.
  73. Soil Erosion
    the process of removal/shifting of soil from the surface of the earth by wind or water: Soil erosion by both wind and water can cause the nutrient rich layer of top soil in a certain area to be whisked away, leaving ground that is very poor for sustaining plants and, in turn, animals. This meant that people had to move their homes depending upon where the soil was being eroded and where the plants and animals were. The early farmers were aware of this and tried to keep the ground nutrient-rich by using early forms of fertilizer, such as cow manure.
  74. Specialization
    Process where certain people performed certain jobs.Historical Significance: The men in the Ju/'hoansi tribe hunted wild animals for their meat, while the woman gathered nuts, berries, roots, etc. Once farming is developed people specialized in jobs other than farming due to surpluses.
  75. Stateless Society
    A society consisting of no political power and the people make decisions. An example of this would be how the San of Southern Africa self-governed themselves and made their own decisions.
  76. Surplus
    When there are more supplies than need or asked for. (Basically extra resources)Historical Significance: Around 10,000 years ago, when the farming era began and became popular, storages of surpluses made it unnecessary for every person to farm for themselves.
  77. Syncretic
    The fusion of different cultural practices.Historical Significance: As the Assyrians conquered more land, they became more culturally diffused. This is one of the earliest instances of syncretism.
  78. The Jewish 10 Commandments
    The 10 Jewish Commandments are the main ideas Moses brought from God that every Jew must respect and follow.Moses came with a stone with writing from God to guide the Jews away from idolatry and towards God.
  79. Theocracy
    Theocracy is the form of government that the laws put by a certain religions' God are the governments' laws.An ancient city in Iraq, Babylon, was created as a city-state witch the main government was a theocracy.
Card Set