test micro

  1. Which domain has a membrane with chemically unique lipids?
  2. In these membranes, ether linkages between glycerol and hydrophobic side chain.
  3. Which type of domain has ester linkages between the glycerol and fatty acids.
  4. What do archaeal membranes lack?
    Fatty Acids, instread they use isoprene.
  5. This type of transport is driven by the energy in the proton motive force.
  6. What happens with group translocation?
    Chemical modification of the transported substance driven by phosphoenolpyruvate.
  7. What involves the periplasmic binding proteins?
    ABC system
  8. Explain group translocation.
    In group translocation, the substance being taken in by the cell is chemically altered so that it can be used once inside the cell.
  9. Describe the ABC system
    Inside the periplasm are proteins that function in transport and are called periplasmic binding proteins. It also gets its energy from the hydrolysis of ATP.
  10. Give the 6 steps of the ABC system
    • 1. substance enters the periplasm through a pore in the outer membrane
    • 2. substance binds to the binding protein which causes a conformational change in the binding protein
    • 3. binding protein and solute bind to transporter
    • 4. then the transporter takes the binding protein with the solute across the membrane (another conformation change occurs, but in transporter)
    • 5. Transporter induces ATP hydrolysis
    • 6. Transporter returns to relaxed state
  11. Cell walls are divided into 2 groups. Name them.
    Gram + and Gram -
  12. What is the function of peptidoglycan?
    It is a compound that gives rigidity to the cell walls.
  13. What makes up peptidoglycan??
    There are 2 sugars (N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylmuramic acid) and 4 amino acids (L, D, D. Acid, and lysine or DAP).
  14. Which cell wall has cross linkage by way of direct peptide linkage of amino group of DAP to carboxyl group of terminal alanine.
    Gram Negative
  15. Peptidoglycan makes up about 10 percent of this type of cell wall.
    Gram -
  16. In a gram + cell, how is linkage done?
    by peptide interbridges
  17. Up to how much peptidoglycan does a Gram + cell wall consume?
  18. In which cell wall is teichoic acid usuallyu present?
    g +
  19. Where can peptidoglycan be found?
  20. Do archaea have peptidoglycan?
  21. What are embedded in the cell wall of gram +
  22. Because archaeal cells do not have peptidoglycan, they use something similar what is it.
  23. Some Archaea do not have peptidoglycans/pseudo. This makes them naturally resistant to what?
    Lysozyme and Penicillan!
  24. What is the name of the cell surface layer with proteins?
    S layers
  25. What are endospores?
    They are differentiated cells that are resistant to hear, and are hard to destroy. They are also resistant to drying, radiation, acids, and chemical disinfectants.
  26. What is the outermost layer of an endospre called? And what does it do.
    The exosporium. Layers of protein, with cortex under that. Inside the cortex is core or spore protoplast.
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test micro