MAN3025 - Exam 1

  1. Intellectual Capital
    the total sum of a workforce's knowledge and ability that can be used for the organization's benefit.
  2. Workforce Diversity
    creating and maintaining a workforce that is represented by groups of people of different age groups, ethnicities, genders, races, religions, and sexual orientations.
  3. Prejudice
    having preconceived unreasonable attitudes regarding members of a certain demographic, population, or group (race, gender, age, etc.) - sets the stage for diversity bias.
  4. Discrimination
    when members of a particular group are given substandard and unfair treatment in the organization.
  5. Glass Ceiling Effect
    an unseen barrier that stops minority groups and women from attaining high positions in organizations, despite adequate experience and qualifications.
  6. Globalization
    the process by which different countries and regions have become interdependent in regard to resources, markets, and competition.
  7. Portfolio Worker
    a person who can adapt to different jobs and careers due to possessing many different types of skills.
  8. Organization
    an arrangement of workers who collaborate to accomplish a collective goal.
  9. Open System
    an system that both responds to and has an effect on its enviroment
  10. Productivity
    the cost of the various inputs compared to the value of the outputs.
  11. Performance Efficiency
    a measure of input that describes how well resources were used in completing an objective.
  12. Performance Effectiveness
    a measure of output in the form of a goal or objective accomplishment.
  13. Administrators
    the name given to managers in a non-profit or government organization.
  14. Supervisors
    the lowest-level management position.
  15. Line Managers
    oversee employees "on the front lines" who create the goods and/or services for the organization's customers. These managers interact with employees on a daily basis.
  16. Staff Managers
    support the line workers with certian technical skills. An example of one in a car production facility is the director of human resources.
  17. Functional Managers
    have expertise in a single area, such as production, accounting, human resources, sales, or marketing.
  18. General Managers
    have an area of responsibility that encompasses many functional areas. This person in a furniture production plant would be in charge of production, accounting, sales, and inventory.
  19. Management
    Planning, organizing, leading, and controlling and organization's resources.
  20. Planning
    the psychological process of determining appropriate activites that achieve the objectives and goals of the organization.
  21. Organizing
    comes after planning, and is the process of coordinating financial, physical, and human resources to accomplish the plan in place.
  22. Leading
    motivating others to accomplish goals and objectives by fostering enthusiasm and dedication.
  23. Controlling
    keeping track of performance and taking corrective action if the expected outcomes are not reached. This is an especially important function if an organization is in a constantly changing or unpredictable enviroment.
  24. Top Managers
    in charge of leading and managing either the whole organization or a large part of it. Titles include president, CEO, vice president.
  25. Middle Managers
    monitor and leade large divisions that are made up of numerous smaller business units. Examples include plant managers, general managers, and divisional managers.
  26. Interpersonal Roles
    the way a manager communicates with others, both inside and outside of the work unit
  27. Leader
    Interpersonal Role: motivating others and giving them focus.
  28. Figurehead
    Interpersonal Role: implementing new policies and acting them out as an example to a subordinate.
  29. Liason
    Interpersonal Role: acting as a "go-between" in groups and making sure activities are coordinated.
  30. Informational Roles
    the way a manager analyzes and passon information.
  31. Disseminator
    Informational Role: passing information on to others.
  32. Spokesperson
    Informational Role: being the official person to give out the information.
  33. Monitor
    Informational Role: obsserving in order to find new information.
  34. Decisional Roles
    the way a manager utilizes information when making a decision; the manager will attempt to solve problems and take advantage of opportunities.
  35. Resource Allocator
    Decisional Role: deciding how much of the budget and other resources goes to each business unit, team, or project.
  36. Disturbance Handler
    Decisional Role: helping to solve various problems, including clashes between individuals and groups.
  37. Negotiator
    Decisional Role: cutting deals and making agreements with others both inside and outside of the work unit.
  38. Entrepreneur
    Decisional Role: taking advantage of opportunities by putting forth new courses of action.
  39. Agenda Setting
    allows managers to prioritze goals, make action plans, and create timelines for completion.
  40. Networking
    creates good relationships with many acquaintances and associates both inside and outside of the firm.
  41. Social Capital
    the ability to utilize one's network connections and relationships to accomplish goals.
  42. Technical Skill
    a special knowledge or expertise that allows a person to operate in a specialized field.
  43. Human Skill
    includes a person's social ability and the capacity to work well with others.
  44. Emotional Intelligence
    the ability to manage ourselves and our relationships effectively.
  45. Conceptual Skills
    allow a manager to think about and analyze complex or abstract situations.
  46. Bureacracy
    a type of organizational structure that has a specific hierarchy of authority, a well-defined division of labor, clear rules and procedures on behavior and performance, impersonal relationships, and carreer advancement based on merit.
  47. Motion Study
    breaking a task down into its fundamental activities.
  48. Hawthorne Effect
    when a group of workers being studied are given special attention, and subsequently improve their performance because of this.
  49. Organizational Behavior
    how individuals and groups act within organizations.
  50. Human Relations Movement
    emphasized the importance of managers focusing on good human relations in order to increase worker output.
  51. Theory X
    • assumes the average person:
    • would rather follow than lead
    • does not like working
    • is lazy and unmotivated
    • is very irresponsible
  52. Theory Y
    • assumes that the average person:
    • is creative
    • is willing to work, since it is a natural human activity (play or rest)
    • seeks responsibility
    • is self-directed
  53. Self-Fulfilling Prophecy
    when one person's expectations cause another person to act as orginally expected.
  54. Operations Research
    using quantitative analysis and mathemetical tools in management, believing that problems can be solved with the appropriate data and the correct mathematical models.
  55. Operations Management
    a field of study that analyzes the way goods and services are rendered and attempts to improve the process, viewing an organization as a system.
  56. System
    a set of smaller coordinated parts that work in tandem to produce a desired result.
  57. Subsystems
    the smaller coordinated parts of a system that work together.
  58. Contingency Thinking
    utilizing different management approaches when the situation calls for it.
  59. Learning Organization
    an organization that is constantly improving and evolving since it changes operations and processes as a result of past experiences.
  60. Evidence-Based Management
    uses actual scientific data and information on which approaches really work to make management decisions, rather than blindly accepting common management platitutdes or the current management trends.
  61. Satisfaction
    the condition of need fulfillment.
  62. Maslow's Needs Theory
    every human has five types of needs, and that the quest to satisfy these needs follows a hierarchy or orderly progression from lowest to highest.
  63. Satisfaction Progression
    once a need is satisfied, a person will move on to strive to satisfy the next higher need.
  64. Alderfer's Needs Theory
    a new take on Maslow's hierarchy. Revised with only three needs: existence, relatedness, and growth.
  65. Existence Needs
    • all the basic physical and material needs that every person has.
    • (Maslow's physiological and security needs combined.)
  66. Relatedness Needs
    includes all needs to interact with others, positively or negatively.
  67. Growth Needs
    • the highest for of needs for both Alderfer and Maslow. Corresponds to Maslow's Self-Actualization needs.
    • Can be furthur subdivided into external and internal esteem.
  68. External Esteem
    Growth Need: can only be satisfied by relating to others; it requires the social approval of others.
  69. Internal Esteem
    Growth Need: is not dependent upon social approval, but is a function of how they feel about themselves and their accomplishments.
  70. Frustration Regression Principle
    • when a person experiences frustration while striving to achieve a higher-order need, they will "regress" or go backward to a lower-order need that was more concrete and/or measurable.
    • (Alderfer)
  71. McClelland's Manifest Needs
    • A theory related to Alderfer and Maslow
    • Similar to Alderfer, had three needs: the need for power, affiliation and achievement.
  72. nPow
    fundamental to the competency of a leader at any level in the organization.
  73. nAff
    fundamental to communicatoin effectiveness and social awareness.
  74. nAch
    • Most researched of McClelland's three needs.
    • Critical to work performance, embodies taking on tasks that are challenging.
  75. Achievement Motivation
    = nAch - Fear of Failure
  76. Equity Theory
    our innate inclination to compare the goodness of our circumstances to the goodness of others' circumstances.
  77. Expectancy
    the belief or confidence that a person's effort will lead to performance.
  78. Instrumentality
    the belief that, if you do perform, your performance will be noted and rewarded.
  79. Valance
    the degree to which the reward that you are given is valuable to you.
  80. Negative Inequity
    when a person (A) perceives that they are receiving relatively fewer outcomes (rewards) for their given inputs (efforts) than they person they compare themselves to (B).
  81. Procedural Justice
    a person's belief that the process of allocating rewards or punitive measures is just.
  82. Distributive Justice
    primarily focuses on the unfair distribution of resources.
  83. Interactional Justice
    a person's sense of fair treatment insofar as it involves the communication process.
  84. Two-Factor Theory
    • Assumes an association between satisfaction and motivation.
    • Frederick Herzberg
  85. Hygiene Factors
    • Two-Factor Theory: those things that tend to be extrinsic to the job.
    • Low ratings relate to employee dissatisfaction with work.
  86. Motivation Factors
    Two-Factor Theory: tend to be intrinsic in nature, and they have the potential to create satisfaction (motivation) in employees.
  87. Acts of Citizenship
    receiving a sense of intrinsic reward for doing something good for nothing.
  88. Cognitive Evaluation Theory
    • where a person experiences less motivation (because they experience less overall rewards) to complete a task that is rewarded or officially sanctioned by the organization or manager.
    • Also called, "crowding out."
    • Some tasks are so highly intrinsically rewarding that offering extrinsic rewards (pay or "credit") for them actually has a net effect of lowering the satisfaction the person receives from the act when they volunteer.
  89. Conditioned Response
    when one event (sight/sound/smell) automatically triggers a response in a person.
  90. Operant Conditioning
    • learnign associations between behaviors and consequences.
    • Based ont he law of effect.
    • Punishment/Rewards; Skinner.
  91. Law of Effect
    • behaviors that are rewarded will tend to be repeated, while behaviors that are not rewarded will not.
    • Thorndike
  92. Shaping Behavior
    • Teaching elaborate behaviors by rewarding them for incremental (gradual) desirable changes in behavior.
    • Skinner with birds, mice.
  93. Saturation
    when the desirablitity of a consequence (reward) diminishes over time because the person has a lesser desire for that particular reward.
  94. MBO
    • a program of goal setting first popularized by Peter Drucker in his 1954 book, The Practice of Management.
    • Prescribes that the most effective goals are characterized by eight conditions.
    • 1. Challenging 2. Attainable 3. Specific 4. Reward Contingent 5. Measurable 6. Feedback Richness 7. Jointly Set 8. Time Bound (9?) Morally Worthy
  95. Skill Variety
    the number of different activities performed by an employee.
  96. Task Identity
    the extent to which the employee's work can be identified as a "meaningful whole" with a beginning and an end.
  97. Task Significance
    the degree to which an employee can perceive the impact of his/her work on the final product, other employees, or the work enviroment.
  98. Autonomy
    the level of control an employee has over deciding how and when work is completed.
  99. Feedback
    • information regarding performance.
    • That it be rich and timely is important, as it results in knowledge of the work outcomes.
  100. Motivating Potential Score (MPS)
    • The formula used in calculating the motivational quality of jobs.
    • (Skill Variety + Task Identity + Task Significance)/3 x (Autonomy) x (Feedback)
  101. Perception
    the process of interpreting and organizing the sensations we attend to.
  102. Perceptual Organization
    the process of organizing our enviromental stimuli into recognizable patterns. Four of the principles we use to assist in this effort include figure-ground separation, similarity, proximity, and closure.
  103. Figure-Ground
    • Perceptual Organization: Perceiving objects that stand against a background.
    • Ex: missing nonverbal messages due to the verbal conversation, the figure.
  104. Similarity
    • Perceptual Organization: Stimuli that have common phsiycal traits are more likely to be grouped together than those that do not.
    • Ex: Athletic teams, or assigning different color schemes to different divisions within a plant.
  105. Proximity
    • Perceptual Organization: Stimuli that occur in the same proximity, either in space or in time, are often associated.
    • Ex: When you see two people together frequently, you may begin to associate a characteristic of one person to the other as well.
  106. Closure
    • Perceptual Organization: Due to the fact that most stimuli we perceive are incomplete, we naturally tend to extrapolate information and project additional information to form a complete picture.
    • Ex: Seeing a pole in front of a stop sign, but completing the mental picture of the sign due to past memories.
  107. Cognitive Complexity
    • the degree to which individuals have developed complex catagories for organizing information.
    • Allows us to differentiate people and events using multiple criteria, which increases the accuracy of our perceptions.
  108. Halo Effect
    the tendency to allow one personality trait to influence our perceptions of other traits.
  109. Selective Perception
    the process of systematically screening out information we don't wish to hear.
  110. Projection
    the tendency to attribute our own feelings and characteristics to others.
  111. Primacy Effect
    the tendency for first impressions and early information to unduly influence our evalutations and judgement.
  112. Stereotyping
    • categorizing individuals based on one or two traits, and attributing other characteristics to them based on their membership in that category.
    • The process of using a few attributes about an object to classify it and then responding to it as a member of a category rather than as a unique object.
  113. Pygmalion Effect
    • a phenomenon that occurs when a person acts ina way that confirms another's expectations.
    • Also called a "Self-Fulfilling Prophecy"
  114. Personality
    enduring characteristics that describe an individual's attitudes and behavior.
  115. Fundamental Attribution Error
    the tendency to overestimate the influence of personality in understanding human behavior.
  116. Attribution Theory
    the assignment of responsibility and the cognitive process we use to understand why people act as they do.
  117. Extroversion
    represents the degree to which people are outgoing, social, assertive, active, and talkative.
  118. Introversion
    refers to those who are shy, antisocial, passive, and quiet.
  119. Locus of Control
    the degree to which individuals believe that their actions influence the rewards they receive in life.
  120. Magnitude
    the level of task difficulty that a person believes he or she can attain, and is related to the concept of goal-setting.
  121. Strength
    the amount of confidence one has in one's ability to perform.
  122. Generality
    the degree to which one's expectations are generalized across many situations or restricted to an isolated instance.
  123. Hypothetical Construct
    • an abstract concept regarding the relationships between people and events that exists because we can operationally define it even though it does have a physical reality.
    • Ex: Satisfaction, intelligence, commitment, and honesty.
  124. Emotional Intelligence
    the competencies that allow us to perceive, understand, and regulate emotions in ourselves and others.
  125. Behavioral Intentions
    the extent to which we actually expect to perform a given act.
  126. Behavioral Evaluations
    the process of interpreting and making sense of our behavior.
  127. Job Satisfaction
    the attitudes employees hold regarding factors in their work enviroment, particularly pay and benefits, the characteristics of the job, supervision, fellow workers, and opportunities for advancement.
  128. Workaholic
    people so involved in their work that they are addicted to working and unable to pursue other meaningful activities without feeling nervous, anxious, or guilty.
  129. Normative Commitment
    a strong belief in and acceptance of the organization's values and goals.
  130. Affective Commitment
    • a strong emotional attachment to the organization and a willingness to exert considerable effort on behalf of it.
    • Generally affects job performance the most.
  131. Continuance Commitment
    a strong desire to maintain membership in the organization.
Card Set
MAN3025 - Exam 1
man3025 exam 1