1. What is blood composed off?
    • Plasma
    • Leukocytes
    • Platelets
    • Eyrthrocytes
  2. What represents percentage of RBC out of blood volume?
  3. What are some physical characteristics of blood?
    • color (varying)
    • pH (7.35-7.45)
    • temp (38*C)
    • volume (M: 5-6 L, F: 4-5 L)
  4. When does blood volume go up in women?
    when they are pregnant
  5. What are three basic functions of blood?
    To distribute, regulate, and protect
  6. What does blood distrubute?
    • respiratory gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide)
    • metabolic wastes away from cells
    • hormones
  7. What does blood regulate?
    • body temperature
    • pH
    • blood volume
  8. How does blood help protect the body?
    • clotting
    • immune components (WBC)
  9. What is blood's plasma mostly?
    90% water
  10. How many solutes are in blood?
    over 100
  11. What percentage of blood does plasma make up?
  12. What protein make up 60% of plasma?
  13. What three proteins are in plasma?
    Albumin, globulins, fibrinogen
  14. What does albumin contribute to?
    osmotic pressure
  15. What regulates water and maintains blood pressure?
    osmotic pressure
  16. Which protein in plasma makes antibodies?
  17. Which protein in plasma makes fibers for clotting?
  18. What are some nitrogenous substances found in plasma?
    lactic acid, urea, creatine
  19. What organic nutrients are found in plasma?
    glucose, amino acids, carbohydrates
  20. What five chemicals are found in plasma?
    • Na+ (sodium)
    • K+ (Potassium)
    • Ca2+ (calcium)
    • Cl- (flouride)
    • bicarbonate
  21. What does bicarbonate in plasma do?
    acts as a buffer to maintain pH in blood
  22. What respiratory gases are found in plasma?
    oxygen and carbon dioxide
  23. What percent of blood composition is RBC?
  24. What blood cell has a biconcave disc shape?
  25. Why do RBCs have a biconcave disc shape?
    high surface area carries more oxygen
  26. Which cell is bigger, RBC or WBC?
  27. Which blood cell has no nucelus?
  28. How long do RBCs live?
    100-120 days
  29. What characteristic of RBCs allow them to travel?
  30. What is RBCs main function?
    transport respiratory gases
  31. What blood cell is filled with hemoglobin?
  32. What are the hemoglobin contents?
    preotin bonded with oxygen and carbon dioxide
  33. How many hemoglobin are found in one RBC?
  34. How many oxygen moelcules can bond with one hemoglobin?
  35. What is made of four polypeptide chains bound to an atom of iron(Fe)?
  36. What is the formation of blood cells in the red bone marrow called?
  37. What bones does hematopoiesis take place in?
    axial skeleton and girdles
  38. What bones does hematopoiesis take place in, in the epihphysis?
    femur and humerus
  39. How long does hematopoiesis take?
    15 days
  40. What is the name of the stem cells that forms all blood cells?
  41. What becomes of a hemocytoblast?
    becomes a committed cell
  42. What is a hemocytoblast that becomes committed to being an erythrocyte called?
  43. What happens in phase 1 of erythropoiesis?
    ribosome synthesis
  44. What happens in phase 2 of erythropoiesis?
    hemoglobin accumulation
  45. What happens in phase 3 of erythropoiesis?
    ejection of nucleus and enters into the bloodstream to mature
  46. What hormone controls erythropoiesis?
  47. What organ is erythropoietin released by?
  48. What triggers the release of erythropoietin?
    tissue's deman for oxygen
  49. What increases the RBC count in circulating blood?
  50. What condition triggers EPO to be made?
  51. What nutrients does Erythropoiesis need?
    • protein
    • lipids
    • iron
    • B12
    • folic acid
    • carbohydrates
  52. Where is MOST iron stored in the bloodstream?
    in hemoglobin
  53. What organs is iron stored in?
    liver, spleen, and bone marrow
  54. What are some intracellular iron components?
    ferritin and hemosiderin (protein-iron complexes)
  55. What is circulating iron?
  56. What is the erythrocyte's life span?
    100-120 days
  57. What do macrophages do?
    engluf dying erythrocytes in the liver, spleen, and bone marrow
  58. What seperates the dead erythrocytes heme and globin?
  59. What happens to globin when it is broken down by macrophages?
    broken down into amino acids released into the blood stream
  60. What RBC disorder causes fatigue, paleness, chills, and shortness of breath?
  61. What disorder is caused by an insufficient number of erythrocytes, or decreased/abnormal hemoglobin?
  62. What is sickle cell anemia caused by?
    defective gene
  63. Why would it be good to have one copy of the sickle cell gene?
    advantage against malaria
  64. What RBC disorder can be treated by blood transfusion or other oxygen treatment?
    sickle cell anemia
  65. What happens in polycythemia?
    • increased blood
    • excess RBCs
    • increased viscosity
  66. What RBC disorder is caused by low oxygen environments, oxygen deprived tissue, or a possible tumor on the kidney?
  67. What RBC disorder shows high BP?
  68. What leaves capillaries of the bloodstream via diapedesis?
  69. What kind of spaces can leukocytes move through?
    tissue space
  70. What WBC disorder is caused by infection, leukemia, or infectious mononucelosis?
  71. What WBC disorder shows less than 5k/mm3 WBCs?
  72. What are two types of WBC?
    granulocytes and agranulocytes
  73. What contain granules, have lobed nuclei, and are phacytic cells?
  74. What is the most numerous leukocyte?
  75. What do neutrophils do?
    bacteria slayers
  76. What is polymorphonuclear?
  77. What leads the body's counter attack against parasitic worms?
  78. What releases histamine to produce inflammation?
  79. What chemical do basophils release to attract other WBC?
  80. What does it mean to say that histamine acts as a vasodialator?
    swells area by signaling more WBCs to the area
  81. Which leukocyte is multi lobed?
  82. Which leukocyte has red granules and is bi lobed?
  83. Which leukocyte is granulated and bilobed but ithey are not obvious?
  84. What leukocyte makes up 25% of WBCs?
  85. Where are lymphocytes most located?
    in lymphoid tissue
  86. What are two types of lymphocytes?
    • T(hymus) cells
    • B(one) cells
  87. Which lymphocyte is used in immunity?
    T cells
  88. Which lymphocyte gives rise to plasma cells that produce antibodies?
    B cells
  89. What is the largest leukocyte?
  90. What leukocyte can morph into macrophages?
  91. Which leukocytes is highly mobile and phagocytic?
  92. What are platelets fragments of?
  93. What are some treatments for leukemia?
    • irradiation
    • bone marrow transplant
    • antileukmic drugs
  94. What is a cancerous overproduction of WBCs that are disfunctional?
  95. What happens in hemostasis to stop bleeding?
    • vascular spasm - restrict amount of blood loss
    • platelet plug formation
    • coagulation
  96. What happens when platelets form a plug to stop a bleed?
    platelets release chemicals to signal for more platel;ets to come to the site
  97. What type of feedback system is the platelet plug formation?
  98. What happens during coagulation when the body stops a bleed?
    • plateletes release chemicals
    • Prothrombin and thrombin are activated
    • Thrombin activates fibrinogen to fibrin
    • fibrin makes a mesh to trap blood cells
  99. What is the difference between a thrombus and an embolus?
    • thrombus - clot develops and persists in unbroken blood vessel
    • embolus - a thrombus freely floating in blood stream
  100. What substances are used to prevent clotting?
    aspirin, heparin, warfarin
  101. What is a common type of warfarin?
  102. How does aspiring "thin" your blood?
    Aspirin inhibits platelets
  103. What promotes agglutination?
    RBC antigens
Card Set
blood ap lec