1. Phylogenetic Tree
    (Evolutionary Tree)

    A "tree" showing the evolutionary relationships between species.
  2. Nodes
    The connecting points where one species diverted into two or more species. They represent the last common ancestor between two lineages.
  3. Internodes
    Branches that connect two nodes. The time spent between the evolution between two ancestors.
  4. Root
    is usually the unlabeled, beginning portion of where the tree reading starts.
  5. Branches/lineages
    Extended portions in time between the root and future unchanged species.
  6. Terminal Taxa (singular, taxon)
    The tips or leaves of the tree
  7. Plesiomorphy
    • The oldest "unchanged" species in the observed tree group that is associated with the root.
    • Ancestral State.
  8. Synapomorphy
    A shared trait between two or more groups. Associated with the internodes.
  9. Autapomorphy
    A character change that is unique to a single terminal taxon.
  10. What is taxonomy?
    the classification system of biodiversity.
  11. What is the hierarchy of classification?
    Domain, Kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species.

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  12. What is the binomial system?
    • Genus- always starts with capital letter. ex. Homo
    • Species- always lowercase. ex. sapien
  13. Monophyletic group
    A group of organisms that includes their most recent common ancestor and its descendants. (one group)
  14. Paraphyletic group
    A group of organisms that includes the most common ancestor and SOME of its descendants. (two groups)
  15. Polyphyletic group
    A group of organisms that doesn't include their most recent common ancestor.
  16. What are the selective pressures on male guppies?
    Male guppies that develop spots at an earlier age have a higher risk of surviving and reproducing. Male guppies with less spots are in less favor with natural selection to reproduce.
  17. Natural Selection
    When various genetic traits of a species become more specifically common due to natural happenings. Certain traits become more selective to survive.
  18. The Scientific Method
    Question, do research/observe, hypothesis, test, analyze results.
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