Mrt 225

  1. What types of effects are genetic effects?
    • Non threshold
    • Stochastic
  2. What is the biggest contributor to population gonadal dose?
    Medical procedures that use radiation
  3. In what three instances is the use of gonadal shielding highly recommended
    • Gonads lie in or near primary beam
    • Patient is of potential reproductive age
    • Clinical objectives will not be compromised
  4. In what instace is the use of gonadal shielding not recommended
    When area of intrest is in the gonadal region
  5. What size relationship should the collimation field have with the image receptor? The x ray field should be
    Smaller than the image receptor
  6. Which ecam would give the lowest gonadal dose
  7. In what age group should females have their gonads shielded according to SC35
  8. Which type of gonadal shield touches the patient and is curved to enclose the male testes
    Shaped contact shield
  9. How can gonad shield use increase patient dose
    Can increase patient dose iif improperly placed causing repeat images
  10. What is the most sensitive stage in the female reproductive cycle
    Mature folicle
  11. At what stage of life area female's eggs produced
    In utero
  12. What is the most sensitive stage in the make reproductive cycle
  13. At what stage of life are a male's sperm produced
    Through out adult life
  14. GSD includes natural background radiation in its evaluation
    True or False
  15. What three things are considered in the evaluation of GSD?
    • Age
    • Expected number of children
    • Gender
  16. List all three names for the all or nothing response
    • Prenatal death
    • Spontaneaus aborstion
    • Re absorbtion
  17. A pregnant woman must never be given an abdominal x ray procedure
    True or False
  18. At what radiation dose to the fetus might a therapeutic abortion be justified without considering all other factors
    Over 25rads(250mGy)
  19. What preventive measures that could be taken to avoid an xray examination being accidentally performed on a pregnant woman are correct
    • Use shielding if will not compromise exam
    • use smallest field size possible
  20. What position should be used when x raying a pregent woman if possible to reduce fetal exposure
  21. Wha is a technologist's responsibility in an investagation of a case where an x ray examination exposure occurred to a pregnant woman
    Supply technique (kvp,mAs,exam type )
  22. What percent of females referred for radiography are likely pregnant
    less than 1percent
  23. What is a usual fetal dose after a series of conventional x rays done in an x ray examination
    1-5 rads
  24. Where should a baby radiation monitor be worn by a pregnant technologist if used
    • Inside the lead apron if used
    • At waist level
  25. What is the maximun limit of radiation exposure allowed as perSC35 to the abdomen of a pregnant technologist for the remainder of the pregnancy once pregnancy has been declared to supervisor
    4 mSv
  26. Should a pregnant family member of a patient be asked to hold the patient during a procedure
  27. An xray technologist's job is to protect the patient from unnecessary exposure
    True or False
  28. DNA is damged most frequently by which type of action as a result of low exposures to x radiation
    Indirect action
  29. Which type of damage is responsible for genetic effects
    Point lesions
  30. Which will cause increased thickness of genetic material
    Cross linking
  31. What are three principle observable effects to the body from irradiation lof cell DNA
    • Cell death
    • Malignant disease
    • Gentic effect
  32. A change or loss of a base will always have a large effect on a person
    True or False
  33. The breaking down of nutrients within a cell called
  34. Main chain scission is irreversible
    True or False
  35. Define the term Free radical
    Unchanged moecule containing single umpaired electron in outer most shell highly reactive, short life span
  36. How do radiation interactions occurring in the cytoplasm cause damage to cell DNA
    • Can produce free radicals
    • May disrupt bonds and produce point lesions from intial interaction in other molecules
  37. Which term refers to the production of germ cells(egg or sperm)
  38. When in the female's life is eggs produced
    During the fetal life
  39. When in the male's life is sperm produced
    Through out adult life
  40. What today is the major man made contibutor to gonadal radiation exposure to the population
    Medical x ray diagnosis
  41. Are genetic effects asumed to be threshold or non threshold
    Non threshold
  42. Name four factors that reduce patient gonad dose
    • Correct beam collimation
    • Use of gonad shields
    • Good technique factors
    • Increased sensitivity of imaging systems
  43. How should an x ray beam be collimated
    Collimation should be smaller than film size
  44. When is the use of specific area gonad shielding strongly advised
    • The gonads lie in or near the primary beam
    • Patient has reasonable reproductive potential
    • Clinical objectives will not be compromised
  45. How is gonad dose related to the sensitivity of the imaging system
    Directly or Inversely
  46. To decrease patient dose tube voltage should be
    Decreased or increased
  47. Where should operators remain when making x ray exposures when ever possible
    Inside the control booth or behind protective screens
  48. What should any people not required in the x ray room be there at the time of exposure
    Anyone not required should leave the x ray room
  49. What should be worn if your presence is required in the x ray room during an exposure
    Always wear appropriate protective clothing if you must remain in the xray room during exposures
  50. What piece of equipment should be worn all the time when ever one works in radiology if one expects to recieve a dose in excess of 1/20 of maximum
    A personal radiation monitor should be worn
  51. GSD can be evaluated quickly and easily
    True or False
  52. What does GSD not consider its evaluation
    Race of person
  53. GSD is a genetic burden over and above the existing back ground level
    True or False
  54. Fetal or embryonic response to radiation is referred to as an all or nothing type of response
    Spontaneous abortion
  55. At what stage of the prgnancy is radiation likely to cause prenatal death
    0-2 weeks
  56. Organogenesis is basically completed by the tenth week of pregnancy but which organ remains radiosensitive until week 15
  57. What may be induced by radiation only at a specific stage of the pregnacy
    Mental retardation
  58. At what stage in the pregnancy may congenital abnormalities of the dkeletal system occur
    2-10 weeks
  59. What 4 methods may be used to evaluate and protect potential early pregnancies
    • Elective bookings
    • Questionnaires
    • Warning posters or signs
    • 10 day rule
  60. What is the first step to follow if fetal exposure has occured
    An estimate of fetal dose must be determined
  61. Can fetal dose be exactly measured
    Can only be estimated from phantom measurements and computer generated calculations
  62. Once the fetal dose estimate is known what are the two alternatives for the pregnancy
    • Continue pregnancy or
    • terminate the pregnancy
  63. What is the expected fetal dose after a series of conventional x rays
    After a series of conventional x rays the fetal dose may be 1-5 rad
  64. What protective measures should be taken with chest or extremity work on a pregnant women
    For exams on a pregnant women that are not of the pelvis or abdomen use a well collimated beam and shield
  65. What patient postion is better to dectease fetal dose
  66. Should radiography be used for abnormal presentation or placental localizations
    Alternative methods of imaging should be used
  67. What protective measures must be used if pelvis or abdominal x rays are required of a pregnant woman
    • Keep radiation exposure to a minimum and use gonadal and other protective shielding if exam will not be compromised.
    • Increase kVp and decreased mAs also decrease dose
    • Use PA if possible
  68. Who is responsible for protecting the fetus from unnecessary radiation exposure
    • Lies with the physician ordering the test.
    • Technologist must alway check with radiogist and doctor prior to performing the test
  69. What is the best method to prevent fetal exposure
    Best way is to not perform the exam at all
  70. What responsibility does a pregnant radiation worker have towards employer when she discovers her pregnancy
    The technologist should notify her supervisor when she discovers she is pregnant
  71. For a diagnostic imaging radiographic technologist what dose level applies to the abdomen once pregnancy is declared
    A dose of 4mSv to the technologist abdomen form the remainder of her pregnancy is the dose limit
  72. The pregnant radiographer should use what practices of radiation protection
    • Decrease time near radiation
    • increase distance from radiation
    • Use shielding
  73. Where should the personnel radiation monitor be worn if pregnancy is suspected
    • Personal radiation monitor should be worn at waist level
    • A baby monitor may be issued
  74. What should the pregnant technologist do if she is required to be in the room during a fluoroscopic examination
    Must be well shielded use extreme care, decrease her time in the room when fluoroscopy
  75. Which person should not be asked to hold the patient
    The mother who suspects pregnancy
  76. Should a 10 year old sibling be asked to hold a patient
  77. What may help to ensure compliance when asking pregnant family members to leave the x ray room
    Explaining the risks of fetal radiation exposure and being considerate of patient's fears and feelings
  78. How does gonad relate to image receptor speed
    inversely related
  79. Which of the following is not a correct situation for the appropriate use of gonad shielding
    Gonads are over area of interest
  80. The x ray beam should always be collimated to the image receptor size
    True or false
  81. Parents required to hold their children for an x ray exam need not wear a lead protective coat as long as they avoid the useful beam
    True or False
  82. GSD averages the gonad dose to the population amongst those who were irradiated and those who were not
    True or False
  83. The earlier the stage of pregnancy at the time of irradiation the more pronounced the effects
    True or False
  84. Are genetic mutations likely to occur to a fetus with a dose of less than 10 rads(100mGy)
    Yes or no
  85. To decrease fetal dose a pregnant patient should be x rayed in which position
  86. At what dose may a therapeutic abortion be justified without needing to consider all the factors
    Over 25 rads(250mGy)
  87. What fetal dose is expected after a series of conventional x rays
    1-5 rads
  88. Once a pregnancy has been declared what is the limit to the abdomen of pregnant technologist for the remainder of the pregnancy
    4 mSv
  89. A pregnant technologist may perform all of her regular duties as long as she takes care and that her dose does not exceed the maxumum permissible radiation exposure to the abdomen for the remainder of her pregnancy
    True or False
  90. Who should not be asked to hold a patient during an x ray procedure
    • 49 year old pregnant mother of patient
    • 10 year old brother of patient
  91. What kind of molecule is most abundant in the body
  92. The first step in producing radiation response is
  93. Which of the following is (are) considered the most radiosensitive
  94. During radiolysis of water the products of initial interaction are
    HOH+ and e-
  95. Which type of effect would be responsible for cancer induction
    Point Lesions
  96. The presence of oxygen enhances the effect of which type of radiation
    Low LET
  97. Free radiacals are highly reactive charged particles
    True or False
  98. Which two dangerous chemicals may be produced as a result of free radical formation
    Hydrogen peroxide and the hydro peroxyl radical
  99. In which body component is the indirect effect most likely to occur
Card Set
Mrt 225
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