1. ´╗┐Microbiology
    study of organisms, (Microorganism/Microbe/Germ/Bug) too small to be seen with the unaided eye.
  2. Types of Microorganisms(4 main types)
    Bacteria, Fungi, Parasites, Viruses
  3. What are the two basic cell types?
    Prokaryotic & Eukaryotic
  4. What is the main similarity between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells?
    Both have metabolic reactions
  5. What are the main differences between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells?
    Cell structure and complexity.
  6. What are the four main parts to the structural organization of the prokaryotic cell?
    Appendages, Cell Enevelope, Cytoplasm and (sometimes) endospores.
  7. What are Cell appendages?
    Structures on the exterior surface of the cell that is used for motility and cell attachment.
  8. What is the cell envelope?
    The Outer wrapping "coat" of the bacteria.
  9. What is the cytoplasm?
    Internal matrix of the cell contained insdie the cell membrane.
  10. What are endospores?
    Mechanisms of survival (not all bacteria have it)
  11. What are three different kind of cell appendages?
    Flagella, Fimbriae/pili, sex pilus
  12. What is used to classify if a bacteria is motile or non-motile?
    The flagella
  13. Do all organisms have flagellum?
  14. Different arrangements of flagellum can be used for...
    ID purposes.
  15. How/why do flagellum move?
    due to directed movement
  16. Flagellum are influenced by positive and negative ___________ in the environment.
    chemotatic factors
  17. What is a positive chemotatic (chemotaxis) factor?
    Food (moving towards food)
  18. What is a negative chemotatic (chemotaxis) factor?
    predators (Moving away from predators)
  19. Is fimbriae/pili a virulent characteristic?
  20. Why is fimbriae/pili a virulent characteristic?
    Because the function of fimbriae/pili is attachment. Bacteria can use this to attach to their host.
  21. What are fimbriae/pili?
    Hair like particles coming off the surface of the bacteria.
  22. What is the main difference bwtween fimbraie and pilli?
    fimbraie (fringed) are together and by the hundereds, while pili are present by theirselves or at most in groups of three.
  23. Pili are composed of a protein called...
  24. Fimbraie and pili are both...
  25. What is the sex pilus?
    A hollow tube in which genetic info (DNA) can be transferred from one organism to another through a process called bacterial conjugation
  26. Define pathogenic.
    Ability of a bacteria to cause a disease.
  27. What are the three major components of the cell envelope?
    Glycocalyx, Cell Wall and Cell Membrane
  28. What is the cell envelope?
    Outer wrapping of the bacteria, the "coat"
  29. What is the glycocalyx?
    The outermost part of the cell envelope
  30. What are the two kinds of glycocalyx?
    Slime layers and capsules.
  31. Which glycocalyx is virulent? Slime layer or capsule?
    Both of them
  32. How is a slime layer virulent?
    inhibits the loss of nutrients, and aid in attachment with its stickiness.
  33. How is a capsule virulent?
    inhibits phagocytosis by white blood cells (anti-phagocytic)
  34. What are the main differences bewtween a slime layer and a capsule?
    the gelatinous and thickness, or how tight the protein mix is bound to the bacteria's cell wall.
  35. Do all bacteria have glycocalyx?
  36. What do slime layers and capsules have in common?
    Same composition = consists of polysaccharide protein
  37. What is the cell wall?
    the exoskeleton of the cell
  38. What gives bacteria their shape?
    The cell wall
  39. Why is the cell wall important for gram staining?
    because different cell wall make ups have different staining retentions. Gives off different gram stain differential stain.
  40. What is the bacterial exception to gram staining?
  41. Why is Tuberculosis the bacterial exception to gram staining
    Its capsule is made of lipids, its nearly impossible to get dye to physically hold within the membrane.
  42. What protects the cell from osmotic lysis?
    Cell wall
  43. How does the cell wall protects the cell from osmotic lysis?
    confining the cell membrane
  44. Thickness of the cell wall depends on what?
    The cell type
  45. Whether a cell wall is gram positive or negative, what is one trait both walls share?
    It's walls contain heteropolymer peptidoglycan
  46. What does the cell membrane do?
    protects the cytoplasm
  47. What is peptidoglycan?
    glycan strands composed of linked NAM and NAG, With peptide bridges linking the NAMs.
  48. What are the 5 major components of the cytoplasm?
    Cell pool, nucleoids(chromatin body)Chromosome, plasmids, ribosomes, inclusion bodies/storage granuless
  49. Do all bacteria have endospores?
  50. What are the glycan chains in the cell wall?
    long polysaccharide chains of two repeating disaccharides
  51. NAG stands for..
  52. NAM stands for..
    N-acetylmuramic acid
  53. What are the glycan chains in the cell wall cross linked by?
    short tetrapeptide between M subunits
  54. What increases the rigdity of the cell wall?
    peptide bridges
  55. What kind of cell wall has multiple layers of peptidoglycan?
    Gram positive Cell Wall
  56. How many layers of peptidoglycan is in a gram positive cell wall?
    about 40 layers
  57. What makes up 10% of a gram positive cell wall?
    acidic polysaccharides
  58. What are the two acids that make up acidic polysaccharides?
    Teichoic acid and Lipoteichoic
  59. What are the functions of the teichoic and lipoteichoic acids?
    assist in the transport of ions and reinforce cross linking between glycan chains.
  60. NAMs and NAGs are both ...
    amino acids
  61. Which cell wall is more rigid? Gram positive or gram negative?
    gram positive
  62. Which cell wall is more complex in nature?
    Gram negative
  63. How many layers is in a gram negative cell wall?
  64. What are the three main layers of the gram negative cell wall?
    Outer membrane, periplasmic space (inner membrane), peptidoglycan.
  65. In the gram negative cell wall, what is external to the peptidoglycan?
    the outer membrane
  66. In the gram negative cell wall, how is the outer membrane semi-permeable?
    Because it allows the transfer of material across the inner memberane
  67. In the gram negative cell wall, what is the outer membrane made of?
    typical phospholipid bilayer
  68. What are the three specialized proteins contained within the outer membrane of the gram negative cell wal?
    lipopolysaccharides, lipoproteins, porin proteins
  69. Do lipoplysaccharides have hydrophobic or hydrophilic tendencies?
  70. What are porin proteins?
    protein channels used to transport thing across the lipid bilayers.
  71. What bands the whole bilayer together in the gram negative cell walls?
    porin proteins
  72. What is the periplasmic space?
    the narrow gap between in the inner and outer membrane
  73. What takes place in the periplasmic space?
    all synthesis and metabolic reactions
  74. What contains degragative or hydrolytic enzymes?
    the periplasmic space
  75. How many layers of peptidoglycan are found in the periplasmic space?
  76. How many layers of peptidoglycan are there in the gram negative cell wall?
  77. What happens when glucose enters the inner membrane?
    Hydrolytic enzymes break it down into 6 single carbons for energy in differnet metabolic reactions.
  78. gram positive and gram negative walls have this in common...
  79. What is the cell membrane?
    very thin flexible structure lying inside the cell wall, and molded completely around the cytoplasm
  80. What is the cell membrane made of?
    phospholipid bilayer containing specialized proteins on exterior of phospholipid bilayer, cant be in the hydrophobic tails.
  81. WHat are the two kinds of specialized proteins found with the phospholipid bilayer of the cell membrane?
    Integral and peripheral
  82. What is the difference between intergral and peripheral proteins?
    Intergal proteins have hydrophobic and hydrophilic tendencies because it is physically lodged into the the membrane and exposed on the exterior too. Periphreal proteins are strictly hydrophilic and are only fount on the exterior of the cell membrane, not in it.
  83. The cell membrane is a ________ permeable barrier
  84. What does the cell membrane retain?
  85. What is the site of metabolic activities attributable to organelles in eukaryote?
    Cell membrane
  86. What 6 metabolic activities attributable to organelles in eukaryotes happen at the cell membrane?
    respiration and photosynthesis, transport systems, synthesis of cell wall components, synthesis of lipids, secretion of exoenzymes, secretion of toxins (virulent factor)
  87. What three types of reactions happen at the cell membrane?
    synthetic reactions, transport systems and secretions
  88. What is the cytoplasm?
    internal matrix of the cell contained inside the cell membrane (dense gelatinous solution)
  89. What is the primary component of cytoplasm?
    water (70-80%)
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